Female hormonal stimulation of ovulation

Hormonal stimulation of ovulation: many women who undergo infertility treatment by in vitro fertilization (IVF) are often interested in questions:

  • Do hormonal drugs used during IVF reduce the ovarian reserve?
  • Won’t all the follicles be taken away during ovarian puncture?
  • Will hormonal stimulation bring the onset of menopause closer?

As part of this short article, we will try to answer the questions posed. And let’s start with the theoretical part.

Hormonal stimulation of ovulation

Ovarian (ovarian) reserve is an internal reserve of the ovaries, which determines their ability to develop a healthy follicle with a full-fledged egg. The ovarian reserve not only reflects the total number of follicles contained in the ovaries, but also their functional state.

The follicular reserve is laid in utero, is not replenished during a woman’s life, does not increase, is individual, and normally by the time of the formation of menstrual function, a girl has an average of 270,000- 470,000 follicles.

hormonal stimulation of ovulation

During one menstrual cycle, as a rule, one follicle grows and reaches the ovulation stage. On average, 400-500 follicles reach ovulation in a woman’s entire life, and the rest undergo atresia (reverse development). Thus, with each menstrual cycle, the total number of follicles decreases, and with their complete disappearance, menopause occurs. The mechanisms of atresia and apoptosis ensure the survival of the strongest follicles, in which genetically healthy oocytes are most likely to mature.

In natural conditions, by the beginning of the next menstrual cycle, a cohort of antral follicles is formed in a woman, of which one pre-ovulatory is isolated by the time of ovulation, while the rest undergo reverse development.

Hormonal drugs

Hormonal drugs used during the IVF program, the so-called “ovulation inducers”, have an effect on almost all follicles that have reached the antral stage, without affecting the entire ovarian reserve. Thus, in a stimulated cycle, it is possible to obtain high-quality eggs even from those follicles that would be “lost” to a woman under natural conditions. From this it can be concluded that stimulation does not lead to premature depletion of the follicular apparatus, does not reduce fertility and, thereby, does not bring the age of menopause closer.

All of the above confirms that the most important physiological factors determining the ovarian reserve are the genetic predisposition and age of the patient.

Studies conducted in recent years have shown that the rate of follicle disappearance doubles when the primordial pool is reduced to 25,000 follicles, which normally corresponds to the age of 37.5 years. This age is defined as critical, after which the ovarian reserve itself decreases sharply. However, there are significant individual characteristics in the time of menarche (10-16 years), the time of menopause (45-55 years), the onset of which is determined only by the individual biological age of a woman.

The correct selection of the stimulation scheme will allow you to get the optimal number of the highest quality eggs without causing any harm to health.

Lack of ovulation: reasons and what to do

If pregnancy does not occur, then you should think about the lack of ovulation. Ovulation refers to the natural physiological processes that occur in the female body. It denotes the natural ability to procreate. During this period, a woman becomes pregnant, because the egg is secreted. This process falls in the middle of the menstrual period. However, if pregnancy does not occur, then it is worth considering, perhaps there is no ovulation, why? What are the reasons?

Important! This article is posted exclusively for educational purposes, the information cannot be used for self-diagnosis and self-treatment. To make a diagnosis and properly prescribe treatment, you should consult a doctor.

Ovulation may not be due to physiological reasons. For example, it is believed that if a girl has her period, then she can get pregnant. Of course, it can, but the probability of this is very low. Stable functioning of the reproductive system, regulation of hormone secretion are not established immediately, so teenage girls have irregular menstruation. Studies show that many menstrual cycles are anovulatory. This is due to the fact that the follicles do not mature normally, which improves over time.

Anovulation may also occur during pregnancy. The hormonal background of a woman is changed, there is no cyclic rhythmic release of hormones (read more here). And during lactation, prolactin increases in the blood, which also prevents ovulation, as with pathological hyperprolactinemia.

Lack of ovulation: The presence of diseases

Most often, the lack of ovulation is caused by a number of serious gynecological and endocrine diseases. Here are the main reasons why there is no ovulation:

  • polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS);
  • reduced estradiol content;
  • excessively high level of follicle-stimulating (FSH);
  • infantilism;
  • high degree of obesity;
  • exhaustion (anorexia);
  • hyperprolactinemia;
  • violation of pituitary function;
  • diseases of the thyroid gland.

If you examine patients with such diseases, you can understand why they do not ovulate. They usually have hormonal disorders that affect all stages of egg development.

Endocrine diseases play a special role. The fact is that the regulation of the secretion of certain hormones is interdependent. Therefore, women with diabetes mellitus, thyroid diseases often have problems with conception.

For example, such a pathology as insulin resistance, associated with a violation of the transfer of sugar into the cell, can cause anovulation. If glucose intake is disrupted, insulin production in the pancreas increases. The effect of insulin resistance on conception is still being studied, but it has been revealed that women with a change in the NOME index, which determines the level of disorders, more often develop polycystic ovary syndrome. It also occurs in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Insulin resistance can be physiological and pathological in nature. Physiological is observed even in adolescent girls and if you do not adhere to proper nutrition, do not follow the regime, it can lead to the development of diabetes, PCOS and anovulation. Problems with conception can occur, even if a woman just got sick before ovulation, this can also negatively affect the process. After all, at this moment the body is involved in the fight against infection, the organs are working in stress mode, hormone production is changing, that’s the reason why ovulation is delayed and it is not. It may come later or not appear at all.

Chronic stress

Constant and increased stress is one of the essential reasons why there is no ovulation. Nervous overstrain, mental overload and chronic stress are among the most frequent causes of a delay in this process. Excessive shock can become a locking mechanism of ovulation. Moreover, with its complete absence for a very long period.

women lack of ovulation

Regulation of the reproductive function of the body is called neurohumoral. This suggests that the brain controls the secretion of hormonal substances. Stress, overstrain create pathological foci in the brain tissue that affect the production of gonadotropins. Therefore, the treatment of this type of disorders can be difficult and sometimes lengthy. If external factors of influence are not eliminated in a timely manner, the process may deepen and then not only pregnancy will not occur, but also the development of diseases of other organs is possible.

Is it possible to get pregnant without ovulation?

If you do lack of ovulation, then in no case should you lose heart, but you should go to the doctor. Perhaps here, in the absence of egg maturation, there is a serious pathology that needs to be urgently treated in order to observe how the tummy grows in the near future. Most likely, the doctor will talk about hormonal failure. To identify the cause of the absence of ovulation, it is recommended to first pass the necessary tests and undergo an ultrasound examination. And this act will be the most correct, because the doctor, based on the medical results, will tell you in detail how to get pregnant without ovulation in your particular case.

And yet, what does modern medicine offer us? Is it possible to get pregnant without ovulation? If the cause of the pathological condition does not lie in serious anatomical disorders, then hormone therapy is recommended, which will provoke the proper maturation of the egg. One of the treatment options is taking medications based on progesterone (for example, Clomid).

So, if you are not sure if it is possible to get pregnant without ovulation, then in this case it is best to set yourself up for a positive outcome. All that is required is to faithfully carry out medical appointments. Remember: proper treatment contributes to the achievement of the goal – pregnancy and the birth of a child.

How to stimulate the maturation of eggs

Stimulating egg maturation: To begin with, such a diagnosis (ovulation dysfunction) under no circumstances can be based on the results of a single examination. Such conclusions of the doctor are fraught with an absolutely useless course of treatment, and prescribed means to stimulate ovulation can cause great harm to the female body if taken unnecessarily. Remember that before thinking about treatment, you need to conduct an ultrasound examination during at least three cycles, and only then think about methods to combat the so-called anovulation.

When it comes to the ovaries, where full-fledged and ready-to-fertilize eggs do not mature, any doctor first of all thinks about the reasonableness of the use of hormonal drugs. The list of drugs used to stimulate ovulation is huge, so the appropriate treatment is prescribed on an individual basis. Nevertheless, there are a number of the most common drugs that we will now consider.

Stimulating egg maturation

Stimulation with clostilbegyt: is a drug that enhances the production of hormones through a direct effect on the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, which then gives an impetus to the maturation of follicles. Ovulation stimulation with clostilbegyt is a fairly well-established procedure – pregnancy occurs in 40% of cases.

An important factor here is a thorough medical examination, during which the doses of clostilbegyt should be established, as well as a further action plan, that is, a clear decision whether the egg will be fertilized in a natural way, or IVF will be needed.

stimulating egg maturation

As a rule, the reception of clostilbegyt begins on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle. Usually, the course of treatment begins with a dose of 50 g, but, again, everything is individual, and without the supervision of a doctor, it is better not to experiment even with the most proven proportions and frequencies of use of this drug. During use, increased sexual activity is recommended, which will increase the chances of a woman becoming pregnant in the shortest possible time. In the absence of visible results of the course of treatment, during the use of clostilbegyt to stimulate ovulation, the doctor may prescribe injections of chorionic gonadotropin. If such treatment is ineffective, the woman is offered to repeat the stimulation, switch to other drugs, or pay attention to surgical methods, such as ovarian cauterization and laparoscopy.

Drugs for ovulation stimulation

Nevertheless, clostilbegyt is far from the only drug used to stimulate ovulation. Among the most popular in use, it is also worth highlighting funds based on clomiphene.

One of the leaders is clomid, which, in addition to stimulating ovulation in women, is also used by men in bodybuilding. There are other names of this drug, for example, Fertomid, and other generics based on clomiphene.

Stimulating egg maturation with folk remedies

Often, the causes of prolonged female infertility cannot be established even by the most experienced doctors, which means that hopes for the appointment of an optimal course of treatment are also sent to the trash can. In such cases, desperate women often resort to “grandmother’s” advice, and, as it turned out, not in vain. Some folk remedies for stimulating egg maturation have confirmed their effectiveness after a number of successful pregnancies of women practicing certain methods, therefore, we will not ignore them either.

It should be taken into account that under no circumstances can phytotherapy be combined with the use of conventional hormonal drugs. In the opposite case, the hormonal background of a woman is at risk of being disturbed, and further medical treatment of infertility will not bring any results. Moreover, before using folk remedies to stimulate ovulation, a woman should carefully study the compatibility of herbs and infusions with her body, and prevent the incompatibility of phytopreparations with factors of her own body. For example, with polycystic ovaries, the use of sage is strictly prohibited, etc. It is strongly recommended to consult with your doctor before making your own course of treatment.

Ovulation after stimulation

In the case of a successful pregnancy after ovulation stimulation, a woman needs to be under the careful supervision of a doctor for the first few months, since at this time the risk of termination of pregnancy is significantly increased. Moreover, in order to avoid fetal hypoxia, a woman will have to periodically take blood tests to determine the level of hormones in her. A full medical examination should also become part of the routine of the expectant mother – after ovulation stimulation, the factors that negatively affect the course of pregnancy become much more than during natural pregnancy.

Bodybuilding Nutrition Plan: What to eat, what to avoid

A bodybuilding nutrition plan can be a daunting task. Indeed, the constant tinkering with containers, the choice of the most anabolic products, and cooking will tire anyone. Success in building powerful muscles will be achieved by those who follow a diet for a set, and eat relatively healthy foods. At the same time, it is not necessary to go crazy and run after organic bulgur grown in the fields of a secret farm. Quite ordinary food is able to satisfy the body’s need for micronutrients and eliminate the need to take additional dietary supplements or clomid. It is only important to be able to combine it all, and not forget to eat during.

2 phases of nutrition in bodybuilding

In bodybuilding, judges evaluate not how a person trains in the gym, but his physical condition. In this regard, weightlifting and powerlifting are easier. No one looks at your abs, and does not assess the presence or absence of a fat layer. A bodybuilder is forced to adhere to a fairly strict nutrition plan for a whole year in order to stand on the competitive stage for only 5 minutes. But what is even more difficult is the path of an ordinary fitness player. “Healthy lifestyle” nicknames do not use the help of pharmacology, and must monitor nutrition even more strictly in order to look good all year round.

Nutrition in bodybuilding is a constant alternation of two phases:

A set of muscle mass. The athlete eats a lot, consumes an “excessive” amount of calories from the point of view of the needs of the layman, and a lot of protein to provide muscle growth with the necessary “fuel” and energy.

Fat burning. The athlete cuts the caloric content of the diet, but tries to maintain the amount of protein at the normal level or even higher. For at least 12 weeks, an athlete eats with a calorie deficit, eats a lot of protein and fiber, a normal amount of fat, and quite a few carbohydrates. This phase leads the practitioner to the very appearance that everyone envies. After the end of the “drying”, you need to stay on a maintenance calorie for a while and start a new set.

Bodybuilding nutrition plan – The need for calories and macronutrients

On average, a bodybuilder needs more calories and macronutrients than an ordinary person of his age with the same weight indicators. The fact is that training should be provided energetically, which means that the amount of carbohydrates on the mass set may be higher than the figures recommended for ordinary citizens. On the mass set, you need to eat about 15% more calories than in the normal state.

bodybuilding nutrition plan

Muscle growth is an energy-intensive process, in addition to the cost of training, it itself increases calorie consumption. If it is a plus for “drying”, then it is necessary to cover this difference on the “mass”. For example, if a bodybuilder normally has a calorie requirement of 3000 kcal, then you will need to eat 3450 kcal on weight.

What to eat and what to avoid

General recommendations for the organization of a diet for human health sound like this:

  1. Avoid “processed” food with a low content of vitamins and minerals, choose whole grains instead of cereals, natural meat and fish instead of sliced and sausages, whole eggs instead of powder, and whole-grain pasta instead of instant noodles;
  2. Give up saturated hydrogenated fats. Say a firm “no” to margarine, rapeseed and soy oil and products from them, as these oils contain too much omega-6;
  3. Do not consume more than 10% of the daily calorie content with sugar and fructose. Take into account everything, including maltodextrin contained in gainers;
  4. Eat regularly, let the volume of portions be reasonable, you do not need to get up from the table with a weight. If you can’t “eat all the calories” with this condition, use a reasonable amount of gainer.

This is how the lists of bodybuilding products should look like:

  • Meat, fish and poultry – lean beef and pork steaks, lean pork tenderloin, chicken and turkey breasts, salmon, cod, tilapia, chicken thighs from farm chickens;
  • Dairy products – low–fat cottage cheese and yogurt with natural lactobacilli, skimmed milk, cheeses (limited);
  • Cereals – buckwheat, oatmeal, bulgur, pearl barley, bread from wholegrain flour, as well as pasta from it, soba, quince, rice, popcorn without butter, sauces, sugar;
  • Fruits – oranges, melons, apples, berries, pears, peaches, grapes;
  • Vegetables – all kinds, especially green leafy and broccoli;
  • Starchy vegetables – sweet potatoes and potatoes, green peas, milk ripeness corn;
  • Legumes – chickpeas, beans, green and ordinary peas, lentils, ordinary and red, white beans;
  • Vegetable oils – olive and avocado; Saturated fats – natural unsalted butter or ghee.

Foods to avoid – bodybuilding nutrition plan

  1. Alcohol. The same US FDA guides imply that a woman can drink 0.33 beer, or a glass of wine, or 1 shot of a strong drink, and a man can drink twice as much. But we must remember that alcohol can significantly affect recovery, and its use can contribute to slowing down protein synthesis, so it should be excluded during serious preparation;
  2. Sugar in foods and dishes. Cookies are better to bake at home, pies and casseroles too, wholegrain flour and a calorie-free sweetener based on stevia will be much more useful than a sweet supplement from ordinary sugar. A small amount of simple carbohydrates before and after exercise is useful, but it should be obtained from allowed grapes and peaches, not sugar. So it will be easier to gain the right amount of calories;
  3. Foods fried in fat. When heated, even the most useful oils turn into a potential source of inflammatory processes in the body. This slows down the recovery in bodybuilding, and is quite harmful to health. Therefore, it is better to eat fried fish and meat minimally. It is worth carefully reading the composition of nut pastes. They should not contain saturated hydrogenated fats.

Conclusion

Bodybuilding nutrition plan is a combination of mainly complex carbohydrates, healthy fats and full-fledged protein sources. Each meal should contain about 30 g of protein, or slightly less. It is better to stick to a fractional style of nutrition, if there are no problems with the pancreas, and use the most natural products. Nutrition for a set or drying is not a “diet” with a meal schedule, they are given in the article simply as an example of a varied diet. It is important to observe the number of calories, and stick to the right amount of portions, and at the same time try to eat as diverse as possible.

Ovulation stimulation for natural conception

Lack of ovulation is one of the most common causes of infertility in a couple. The tactic involves stimulating ovulation in various ways. Ovulation stimulation for natural conception triggers the process of egg maturation, follicle rupture and oocyte release from the ovary. Depending on the situation, medicinal methods or folk remedies are used. Let’s analyze which method of ovulation stimulation for conception is suitable for a particular case, and how to carry it out so that there are no negative consequences.

What is ovulation stimulation for natural conception

A woman’s menstrual cycle is divided into two phases. The first is the follicular, during which, under the influence of the follicle-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland (FSH), the follicle matures. The follicle grows, increases in volume, produces estrogens. The first phase lasts approximately 14 days.

When the size of the follicle and the concentration of estrogens reaches a maximum, the pituitary gland reacts to this and begins to produce another hormone — luteinizing (LH). This is the beginning of the second phase of the cycle. Under the influence of LH, a rupture of the follicle shell occurs and the egg “leaves” the ovary. In place of the burst follicle, a temporary structure remains — a yellow body. It produces progesterone, which is later needed for the development of pregnancy.

After the release of the egg (oocyte) moves through the tube towards the uterus. If sexual intercourse occurs at this moment, the egg meets the sperm and conception occurs. Then the embryo descends into the uterus, implantation takes place. The yellow body continues to function and supports pregnancy.

When conception does not occur, the egg enters the uterus, from there it is excreted from the body with menstrual secretions. At the same time, the next follicle begins to mature. So the next cycle begins.

Ovulation disorder can occur at the pituitary gland level — it does not secrete FSH, LH or their concentration is reduced, as well as at the level of the ovaries. To eliminate the violation, it is necessary to find out the cause and the level of development of pathology. Without this step, any, even the most innovative, will be ineffective.

Ovulation stimulation helps to form an egg and get it out of the follicle. At the same time, a woman’s germ cell will be of high quality, without deviations, capable of fertilization.

When ovulation stimulation is needed?

Ovulation stimulation for conception is carried out when a woman does not become pregnant due to absence (anovulatory cycles) or violation of the release of the egg from the follicle. At the same time, natural fertilization is planned, that is, by ordinary sexual intercourse.

The cause of ovulation disorders may be:

  • hormonal disorders due to pathology in the ovaries or pituitary gland;
  • PCOS is a syndrome of polycystic ovaries, when the ovary is in a dense shell, the egg cannot penetrate through it to the outside;
  • concomitant diseases;
  • stress;
  • taking medications;
  • bad habits.

Anovulatory cycles are also found in healthy women. There are few such cycles at a young age. The older the woman, the more often they occur, and the worse the situation is with fertility – the ability to fertilize.

The ovulation stimulation procedure can be performed when a woman has a supply of eggs, that is, she has sufficient ovarian reserve. If the reserve is low, there is no point in activating the ovaries.

ovulation stimulation for natural conception

The procedure should be carried out in parallel with the main treatment or after it. Therefore, the first step is a thorough examination, which will determine the endocrine status, the state of the reproductive organs and the general condition of the body.

The partner is also being diagnosed by a urologist-andrologist.

How to stimulate ovulation?

Ovulation stimulation is the administration of drugs that cause the maturation of the egg. At the same time, you need to prepare the endometrium of the uterus so that by the time of conception it was the right thickness, and the implantation was successful. All procedures are carried out under strict supervision of a doctor and ultrasound monitoring. The doctor monitors the body’s reaction to drugs, monitors the growth of follicles. Thus, he will be able to correct the treatment in time and prevent complications.

Various methods, preparations (clomid and its analogues) and schemes are used. The choice depends on the result of the assessment of the ovarian reserve, the woman’s body weight. The result of the previous procedures also matters.


Separately, it is worth mentioning about psychological training. An important role in the functioning of reproductive organs is played by the psychological state. Stress — and it is inevitable when planning pregnancy with anovulatory cycles, when the result cannot be guaranteed with 100% certainty – worsens the condition of the reproductive organs, the endocrine system.

Therefore, a woman during the period of ovulation stimulation for conception in a natural way needs to pay attention to this area. Psychotherapy sessions and sedatives are recommended.

One of the ways to achieve emotional balance is abstraction from the problem. It is worth trying to distract yourself, to live a normal life, without dwelling on ovulation and other aspects. Perhaps you can look for some ways of relaxation: yoga, meditation, art therapy. Of course, you need enough sleep and rest.

Drugs for ovulation stimulation

One of the reasons for infertility in women is the lack of ovulation, when there is no exit from the follicle of a mature egg, which, in fact, should be fertilized by spermatozoa. This condition is called anovulation. What drugs for ovulation stimulation exist today?

Treatment of anovulation is carried out by stimulating ovulation, for which drugs aimed at activating ovarian function are used, the most popular of which are clomid, clomiphene citrate, pregnil and clostylbegit.

Clomid – drugs for ovulation stimulation

Other names of Clomid: Ardomon, Biogen, Blesifen, Clofert, Clomhexal, Clomifeencitraat cf, Clomifen, Clomifene, Clomifeno, Clomifenum, Clomifert, Clomipheni, Clomivid, Clomoval, Clostilbegyt, Clovul, Dufine, Duinum, Dyneric, Fensipros, Fermid, Fermil, Fertab, Fertil, Fertilan, Fertin, Fetrop, Genoclom, Genozym, Gonaphene, Gravosan, Ikaclomin, Indovar, Klomen, Klomifen, Kyliformon, Milophene, Ofertil, Omifin, Orifen, Ova-mit, Ovinum, Ovipreg, Ovofar, Ovuclon, Ovulet, Pergotime, Phenate, Pinfetil, Pioner, Profertil, Prolifen, Provula, Reomen, Serofene, Serpafar, Siphene, Spacromin, Tokormon, Zimaquin.

Initially, clomid was developed to treat such a serious disease as breast cancer. However, the drug was not widely used in this area of treatment, as it did not meet the inflated expectations. Later, it was used as a drug that helps stimulate ovulation for women who have problems with the onset of conception due to a violation of the ovulatory cycle. Clomid is prescribed in the following cases:

  • if the development of anovulation occurred due to the presence of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS);
  • with infertility of unclear genesis: if, from a medical point of view, a woman has no obstacles to the onset of conception, but pregnancy does not occur. It is recommended to supplement the use of clomid with metformin, which helps to increase insulin levels and stimulate ovulation;
  • for additional guarantees during ovulation stimulation before in vitro fertilization (clomid increases the chances of a successful pregnancy).

The optimal course of use of this drug should be six months, unless, of course, pregnancy occurs earlier than this period, which happens in 30% of cases.

Clomid has minor side effects, in the process of taking it, painful sensations in the lower abdomen, sleep disturbance and weight gain can be observed. In extremely rare cases, taking clomid threatens the development of a cyst or ovarian tumor.

Pregnil

Pregnil is a drug based on human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Its use is prescribed to women of any age, however, depending on various factors, clomid has different effects. The purpose of its use as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of infertility is to stimulate the activity of the ovaries as part of the artificial insemination program.

The highest concentration of hCG in a woman’s body is observed 20 hours after the first intake of the drug. The excess of the drug is excreted from the body independently after a few days.

Clomiphene Citrate

Clomiphene citrate is not very popular among medical professionals due to its notoriety associated with the side effects of the drug. Against the background of taking clomiphencitrate, the size of the ovaries may increase, urination becomes more frequent, visual function is impaired, and vasomotor symptoms often occur. However, clomiphene citrate is indispensable in cases where there is no possibility of folliculometry. Clomiphene citrate has contraindications: it cannot be used for ovarian cysts.

drugs for ovulation stimulation

Drugs for ovulation stimulation: Clostylbegit

Clostylbegit is rightfully considered one of the most popular drugs that promote ovulation stimulation. Its effectiveness especially increases against the background of taking other drugs with a similar effect. Clostylbegit increases the level of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) in the female body, provided that medications are taken simultaneously to reduce prolactin levels during ovulation stimulation, which ensures its effectiveness.

The dosage of clostylbegit should be calculated by a doctor in accordance with the patient’s medical indicators and the individual characteristics of her body. The absence of ovulation after several courses of taking the drug may signal the presence of certain pathologies of the reproductive system. A side effect of clostylbegitis may consist in thickening of cervical mucus, which prevents the movement of spermatozoa.

Hormonal ovulation stimulation drugs

Today we will talk about the rules for the use of hormonal ovulation stimulation drugs. Hormonal drugs are drugs obtained synthetically. They act like natural hormones produced in the body.

Types of hormonal drugs for women

In the treatment of female infertility, hormonal drugs are always used, as a rule. Women can be prescribed combined oral contraceptives, tablet or transdermal (through the skin) drugs containing estrogens, progesterone preparations, as well as the well-known clomid.

During ovulation and superovulation stimulation (IVF protocols), antiestrogens (Clostylbegit), recombinant (purified), urinary preparations containing FSH and/or LH are used.

In IVF protocols, Gnrh agonists (Diferelin, Decapeptil), Gnrh antagonists (Orgalutran, Cetrotide) are prescribed. The trigger of follicle maturation is the hormone – chorionic gonadotropin.

Thyroid preparations (synthroid) or medications that reduce prolactin production, as well as many others, can be used for treatment.

Hormonal ovulation stimulation: side effects

For the safe and effective use of the necessary hormonal drugs, the doctor first needs to examine patients, collect anamnesis and additional examinations (ultrasound, blood tests for hormones).

There are practically no medications without side effects at all. But it is necessary to distinguish side effects that do not require withdrawal of the drug. For example, breast swelling when taking contraceptive hormones is considered a normal phenomenon.

Headache, dizziness, fluctuations in weight (plus or minus 2 kg) — all this is possible and, as a rule, passes quickly.

Most medications containing hormones have a large list of contraindications. The main ones are: malignant neoplasms or suspicion of their presence, hereditary or acquired risks of thromboembolic complications (changes in blood test parameters, identified genetic mutations of hemostasis that previously occurred in patients with thromboembolism, smoking, etc.).

! It is very important to inform at the reception of all the transferred diseases, the results of the examination and follow all the recommendations of the attending physician.

Rules for the use of hormonal drugs in IVF protocols:

Regularity and dosage. Hormonal drugs should be taken at the appointed time, with a clear regularity. If you miss an appointment or have doubts about the need to continue treatment, be sure to consult your doctor. Self-cancellation or dose change can lead to negative consequences.

The frequency of appearance for follicle growth monitoring is determined individually for each patient and depends on the follicle growth rate, the specifics of the stimulation protocol.

If the patient could not get to the appointment due to unforeseen circumstances, then it is necessary to coordinate further actions by phone with the attending physician. Ovulation stimulation is carried out with daily doses of hormones, missed days can affect the result achieved.

The dosage of hormonal drugs is prescribed by the doctor individually and must be strictly observed. Any deviation in the direction of increasing or decreasing the dosage can completely disrupt the entire treatment process.

hormonal ovulation stimulation

Introduction of a trigger (hCG). As soon as the ultrasound picture shows that the ovulation stimulation process is completed successfully, i.e. the follicles are ripe enough for puncture, the patient is prescribed a single injection of hCG. This drug is administered 35-36 hours before the puncture.

Ovulation may occur after 37 hours. If less than 34 hours pass after hCG administration and puncture, the oocytes will not have time to mature. In such situations, the follicles will be empty during puncture.

That is why it is so important to inject hCG at exactly the appointed time. In those situations when the patient accidentally changed the time of the trigger injection, he should immediately inform the attending physician in order to coordinate a possible change in the time of the operation.

During intrauterine insemination, the principle of the introduction of a trigger (hCG), as a rule, changes. After the introduction of the final ovulation drug, insemination is prescribed a day later, and a repeat procedure is performed 1-2 days after the first one. So it is planned to carry out insemination before and after ovulation.

We increase the chances of getting pregnant

The average age of American women deciding to give birth to their first child is 26.7 years. In New York, they become mothers even later — on average, at 28.5 years. Representatives of the fair sex are no longer in a hurry to start a family, preferring the development of business, career, and motherhood issues are trying to postpone. But does the female body agree with such attitudes and what are the chances of getting pregnant after 30? The gynecologist listed the factors affecting female fertility and told about the possibilities of its preservation.

What is female fertility?

The term has a Latin origin – “fertilis”, which means fertile, fertile. That is, fertility is the ability to conceive, bear and give birth to healthy offspring.

Is it true that fertility is divided into low, normal and high?

Yes, although the division is very conditional:

Low fertility is the inability of a woman to conceive and/or give birth to a healthy child without medical care.

Normal fertility is the ability to get pregnant on your own, to carry and give birth to a healthy child without medical care.

High fertility is the ability to get pregnant independently and give birth several times in a short period of time, as conceived by nature. In this case, the woman does not even need clomid to stimulate ovulation.

chances of getting pregnant

Chances of getting pregnant. Factors affecting fertility

Age

By the 20th week of intrauterine development, there are about 7 million immature germ cells in the girl’s ovaries. By the time of the onset of the first menstruation, only 300-400 thousand eggs remain under the influence of strong hormonal changes.

Do you think that every month in case of non-pregnancy you lose only 1 egg? That’s not so. The processes of death of follicles (structural components of the ovary, consisting of an egg and its “environment”) occur constantly under the influence of various factors, especially stressful.

Usually, fertility decreases after 30-35 years: at this time, the number of follicles not only significantly decreases, tending to 25 thousand, but also the rate of their disappearance increases and the quality of the oocytes themselves (immature eggs located in the ovary, from which mature ones are subsequently formed) significantly deteriorates.

Weight

Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ that has a hormonal function. Insufficient or excessive accumulation of estrogens in adipose tissue can cause ovulation block, menstrual cycle failure and, as a consequence, the absence of a successful pregnancy.

Overweight women have a large symptom complex of pathological adaptive mechanisms that combine under one diagnosis – metabolic syndrome. All this increases the risk of infertility, polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperandrogenism and miscarriages in the first trimester. During pregnancy, such women have a higher risk of diabetes in pregnant women, increased blood pressure and the development of preeclampsia (pregnancy complication), and the risk of operative delivery (cesarean section) is also higher.

With a lack of body weight, the body experiences extreme stress and directs all its efforts to survival, not to maintain reproductive function. That is why skinny girls, as a rule, do not have menstruation or they manifest themselves with very scanty secretions. Problems with menstruation indicate a low reproductive capacity.

Excessive physical activity

Naturally, physical activity is useful. But the good thing is that in moderation. Any intensive training puts an excessive load on the adrenal glands, so stress hormones are released: adrenaline and norepinephrine, and a cascade of biochemical reactions is triggered that increases androgens in the blood, which, in turn, can lead to ovulation block.

The lack of physical activity leads to stagnation of blood in the pelvis, lymphostasis, which means that the metabolism in the reproductive organs worsens and their nutrition is disrupted.

Chances of getting pregnant: sleep

Sleep is very important for women’s health. The production of melatonin, responsible for reparative processes in the body, the development of immunity, the restoration of basic biochemical processes, falls precisely at night.

Sex

During intimacy, a lot of blood flows to the pelvic organs, a generous cocktail of hormones and neurotransmitters is thrown into the blood, undoubtedly, this has a beneficial effect on fertility. Having an orgasm, achieving peak pleasure is a real medicine that prolongs female youth and increases the chances of successful conception.

We will not mention such obvious things as smoking or alcohol. They negatively affect fertility, ovulation and significantly reduce the chances of getting pregnant.

What affects the reduction of follicular reserve?

  • bad habits (sedentary lifestyle, non-compliance with work and rest, smoking, abuse of harmful foods);
  • ecology, electromagnetic radiation (I hope you don’t carry a mobile phone in your pants pockets and don’t put a laptop on the pelvic area);
  • chronic stress;
  • ovarian surgery (in particular, resection);
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • genetic features;
  • chronic inflammatory diseases of the pelvic organs;

Reasons for the absence of ovulation

Menstrual cycles are caused by the growth of the follicle and the release of the egg from it. This phenomenon is called ovulation. Then the egg enters the lumen of the fallopian tube, where it can be fertilized by a sperm. Conception cannot occur if the meeting of these two germ cells does not take place. Therefore, not every sexual act ends with fertilization. It is necessary to simultaneously match several conditions, one of which is ovulation that occurred the day before. What could be the reasons for the absence of ovulation?

Absence of ovulation: anovulation is a condition in which, for various reasons, the egg does not exit. The onset of pregnancy in a natural way is impossible. But this does not mean that a healthy woman must conceive after a month of sexual life without protection. The moment of rupture of the follicle is theoretically calculated, but in practice ovulation can occur both earlier and later (may depend on external factors), there may be cycles without ovulation (4 times a year such cycles are the norm), not every egg is capable of fertilization. It is believed that in healthy couples of 25 years planning pregnancy, the percentage of its occurrence (precisely because of the unpredictability of the cycle) is about 30-35%, which is slightly different from the percentage with IVF under the same conditions. The cause may be more significant deviations associated with pathologies. Infertility can be discussed if pregnancy does not occur during the year of life with a partner without the use of contraception until the age of 35 and within 6 months if the partner is over 35 years old.

One of the reasons may be anovulation. This diagnosis is made after a targeted examination.

Physiological reasons for the absence of ovulation

There are a number of conditions in which a healthy female body does not provide an egg during one or a number of cycles. And this is completely normal from the point of view of physiology. So, ovulation stops immediately after pregnancy and resumes only after the end of lactation. The restructuring of the body occurs due to the natural reaction of the endocrine system.

Ovulation does not always occur simultaneously with the onset of menstruation in teenage girls. The postponement of puberty can last up to two years. And this is also considered a physiological norm.

In childbearing age, outside the periods of pregnancy and lactation, women may experience pauses of so-called rest, during which ovulation does not occur for physiological reasons. Such states occur periodically and may have a length of several cycles. Normally, during the year there is from one to 5 times skipping the output of the oocyte.

The number of eggs in women is limited, so when their limit is exhausted, natural menopause occurs. By the end of childbearing age, ovulation may occur irregularly.

What diseases can cause anovulation

Diseases of the endocrine system lead to pathological anovulation, first of all. The so–called brain glands – the pituitary gland and hypothalamus – play an important role in controlling the processes occurring in the ovaries. They produce important hormones that affect the maturation of germ cells. A violation of the blood circulation of the brain or its tumors often cause anovulation. For the normal functioning of the ovaries , the danger is:

  • pituitary tumor lesion;
  • hypothalamic dysfunction;
  • increased prolactin levels;
  • increased androgen levels;
  • stress.

The absence of ovulation can also occur against the background of:

  • inflammation of the appendages;
  • polycystic ovaries;
  • thyroid disorders;
  • liver diseases;
  • injuries and pathologies of internal genitalia;
  • underweight or overweight;
  • taking hormonal contraception medications;
  • uncontrolled use of steroid drugs.

These diseases and pathological conditions are not necessarily accompanied by a complete absence of ovulation. But if anovulation takes place, then it is associated with one of these reasons or their complex.

Symptoms and diagnosis

With a normal menstrual cycle that lasts 28-30 days, ovulation occurs between the 9th and 14th day. The output of the egg can be tracked at home using an ovulatory test, which can be purchased at any pharmacy. If the test is positive, it means that the most favorable moment for conception has come. Indirect signs of the approach and onset of the moment of maturation and release of the oocyte include changes in the nature of vaginal secretions – they become transparent. If a woman has a lowered pain threshold, then she may feel a pulling pain in the ovary area at the moment of rupture of the dominant follicle.

The absence of ovulation can be indicated by many disorders of ovarian function, including polycystic. They manifest themselves as a cycle failure, menstruation delays or their complete absence. Obvious signs of anovulation:

  • the absence of a natural increase in rectal temperature observed in the middle of the cycle;
  • the nature of vaginal discharge does not change in the period between menstruation;
  • a sharp deterioration in the condition of the skin and hair;
  • negative ovulation test on probable days.

To more accurately establish the fact of anovulation, it is necessary to monitor 3-4 menstrual cycles in a row.

Even if a woman is not planning pregnancy in the near future, with symptoms of anovulation, she needs to consult a gynecologist to prevent the development of primary diseases.

The diagnosis of anovulation can only be made by a doctor. To do this, he needs to conduct a dynamic analysis of menstrual cycles based on observations.

Treatment in the absence of ovulation

Based on the results of the examination, the reason for the absence of ovulation in a woman of childbearing age is established. But often this violation is associated with lifestyle, stress, unhealthy diet and various abuses. In this case, it is enough to come to a healthy lifestyle, eliminate stress factors (perhaps undergo a course of psychotherapy) and ovulation is restored. If hormonal disorders were detected during the examination, then the treatment consists in its stabilization. The doctor may prescribe hormonal or metabolic drugs (for example, clomid).

absence of ovulation

With polycystic ovaries, they increase in size and thicken, which makes it difficult for the egg to exit. In addition, they begin to produce an excess of androgenic hormones, which suppresses the maturation of female germ cells inside the follicles. Infertility resulting from polycystic fibrosis is treated therapeutically or surgically, by resection of the ovaries.

With various pathologies that have led to a condition when the egg does not come out, an appropriate treatment strategy is chosen in gynecology. In itself, the absence of ovulation is just a symptom of a primary disease or a whole complex. Therefore, diagnosis is a very important step in restoring ovarian function and normalizing the menstrual cycle.

Prevention of problems associated with anovulation

The reasons for the absence of normal maturation and release of eggs, which are not related to congenital pathologies and hereditary factors, can be prevented with the help of prevention. Every woman should keep a menstrual diary. In cases of cycle failures, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist unscheduled. A timely examination will help determine the cause of the failure and prevent complications. A woman should monitor her diet, prevent deviations of body weight from her age norm. Obesity or anorexia are conditions in which the hormonal system fails, which certainly affects the function of the reproductive organs. Having a normal body mass index is useful not only for conception, but also for normal fetal gestation.

Women are not recommended to choose hormonal drugs on their own and take them uncontrollably. This can lead to a whole range of problems, including infertility due to ovarian dysfunction.

The fertile diet and Clomid.

Poor nutrition is one of the reasons why some women can not get pregnant. Such conclusions were made by scientists on the basis of large-scale studies conducted. On their basis, a fertile diet was compiled, designed to increase the ability to conceive a baby.

The fact that the use of a certain set of products helps to get pregnant (we also remind you that clomid copes with this task perfectly) became known in the early 90s. Scientists have developed a special nutrition system after a long eight-year study in which more than 18 thousand women took part. The diet, called fertile, increases the chances of getting pregnant, and also affects the development of the fetus.

By the way, other studies conducted on animals have shown that a certain type of nutrition of parents before conception has a serious impact on the health of offspring.
Of course, when planning a pregnancy, you should not rely only on a diet, but as studies show, it can really increase the chances of conception. But of course, if a woman does not have serious problems like infection, clogged fallopian tubes, or if the cause of infertility is not any irreversible painful processes. What should be the nutrition of future parents?

fertile diet

What foods can not be consumed if you want to get pregnant

First of all, it is important to exclude from the diet coffee and products containing caffeine-Coca-Cola, Pepsi, etc. The fact is that caffeine suppresses the reproductive function of the body. Caffeine stimulates the production of androgens by the liver, adrenal glands, and ovaries. The increased amount of androgens does not have time to turn into sex hormones, as a result, the endocrine balance is disturbed. As a result, there is a lack of ovulation, an incompetent egg or sperm, polycystic ovary syndrome. Nicotine has the same effect.

You should also give up sugar and flour products. After consuming sugar and products with it, the glucose level increases. To reduce it, the body produces insulin, which can cause polycystic ovary syndrome, which is one of the most common causes of female infertility, problems with conception and even carrying a child.

Products with preservatives and dyes are also on the black list, since they directly affect the viability of the egg and sperm cells. In addition, settling in the liver, they disrupt its proper functioning, causing increased production of androgens.

Fertile diet: What does a woman have to get pregnant faster

The diet of the expectant mother should be rich in healthy fats, whole-grain products, vegetable proteins. All these products support the eggs in working condition, contribute to regular ovulation, normalization of sugar levels, and as a result, the onset of a long-awaited pregnancy.

Meat consumption should be reduced in favor of vegetable proteins – legumes, nuts, as well as fish and seafood. The researchers note that the use of excessive amounts of protein can negatively affect the attachment of the embryo to the uterine wall or interfere with its early development.

The diet should also contain a sufficient amount of vitamin E (vegetable oils).

As for dairy products, they should not be decontaminated. When following a fertile diet, it is recommended to consume fatty milk, cheese and yogurt. Dairy products with normal fat levels contribute to the production of a hormone associated with ovulation and fertility.

A distinctive feature of the fertile diet from others is the high level of folic acid. As is known, this acid plays a special role not only in conception, but also in the development of the embryo.

Fruits, nuts and greens are especially rich in folic acid.

Foods rich in vitamin C also contribute to the improvement of reproductive functions in women. In this regard, it is necessary to increase the consumption of citrus fruits, kiwis, apples, pears, wild berries, tomatoes, bell peppers and broccoli.

Experts recommend eating five servings of vegetables and fruits a day: three vegetables and two fruits. One fruit or vegetable is equal to one serving. It is also necessary to take vitamins.

These studies of the influence of nutrition on the probability of conception were conducted by scientists at the Harvard Medical Institute in Boston