Review of clomiphene citrate

Clomid (clomiphene citrate) is a highly effective antiestrogen officially classified as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM). Review of clomiphene citrate: In many ways, it is very similar to the other popular SERM in Nolvadex (Tamoxifen Citrate). Clomid first gained worldwide attention in the early 1970s as a powerful fertility enhancer and is still used for this purpose. It is also one of the most commonly used SERMs by anabolic steroid users. No, this is not an anabolic steroid, but it can be used to combat the estrogenic side effects sometimes caused by anabolic steroids. It can also be used as a post cycle therapy (PCT) medication to stimulate suppressed testosterone production due to anabolic steroid use. The use of PCT-based Clomid is the most common target and most beneficial point of use for anabolic steroid users.

Functions and features of Clomid:

Clomiphene citrate is a SERM that is specifically used as a fertility aid due to its ability to increase the release of gonadotropins. Clomid has the ability to counteract negative estrogen feedback on the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. This will significantly increase the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). By increasing the release of gonadotropin, this can lead to the release of an egg, thereby increasing the chance of conception.

Clomid also has strong antiestrogenic properties that can be used therapeutically, but its antiestrogenic properties are most commonly associated with anabolic steroid use. Testosterone and many testosterone-derived steroids have the ability to convert to estrogen through the interaction of testosterone with the aromatase enzyme. An increase in estrogen levels can lead to gynecomastia and water retention. Water retention in the body can also contribute to high blood pressure. By adding Clomid while using anabolic steroids, the SERM will bind to estrogen receptors, thus preventing the estrogen hormone from binding. This can be very helpful in the fight against gynecomastia because when Clomid binds to the receptor, it prevents estrogen from stimulating the breast tissue. It can also have a positive effect on water retention.

Review of clomiphene citrate

Clomid also has functional characteristics that are beneficial for anabolic steroid users after consuming anabolic steroids. In particular, we are referring to post cycle therapy (PCT). In men, Clomid also has the ability to stimulate the pituitary gland to produce more LH and FSH, which in turn stimulates increased natural testosterone production. This is extremely beneficial for those taking post cycle anabolic steroids as natural testosterone levels will be very low due to the suppression caused by anabolic steroid use.

Effects of Clomid. Review of clomiphene citrate

In therapeutic settings, as a fertility aid, Clomid has a simple effect. A woman has difficulty getting pregnant, Clomid increases the likelihood of conception and pregnancy. This doesn’t always work and we’ll go through the process in the administration section, but it will greatly increase the chances of conception and is quite successful.

As an antiestrogen when using steroids during a cycle, Clomid is quite effective in preventing gynecomastia. It does not lower estrogen levels or inhibit the aromatization process, but in many cases receptor binding is sufficient protection for many men. In fact, even though stronger protective agents exist, many men would be surprised how well a SERM like Clomid can work if they gave it a chance. More importantly, using Clomid for this purpose can also positively affect cholesterol levels. Although Clomid is an antiestrogen, it actually acts like estrogen in the liver, which in turn promotes healthier cholesterol levels. This can be very beneficial for an anabolic steroid user as anabolic steroid use is known to increase unhealthy cholesterol levels.

For many men, especially heavy anabolic steroid users, Clomid is not enough to protect against estrogens. In this case, an aromatase inhibitor (AI) such as Arimidex (Anastrozole) or Femara (Letrozole) will be required. AIs actively suppress the aromatase process, and serum estrogen levels decrease. By far, they are the most effective in combating gynecomastia and more effective in combating water retention. In fact, SERMs like Clomid often do very little to combat water retention.

However, in many cases, many athletes would be better able to control their water retention if they had more control over their diet. In the off-season, to gain mass, this requires an increase in the number of calories. However, many go too far, especially when it comes to carb intake, and this forces you to hold back with or without anabolic steroids. Add flavoring steroids to the equation and water retention is even greater. Also, AI, while effective, will have a negative effect on cholesterol, which leads us to only one reasonable conclusion. Control your diet and if you can control gyno with a SERM like Clomid, this should be your first choice.

We are then left with the effects of Clomid as they relate to PCT. When we take anabolic steroids, it suppresses the natural production of testosterone. The rate of suppression will depend on the steroids used and to some extent on the total dosage, but will usually be significant. For this reason, most men always include exogenous testosterone in their steroid cycles. In fact, it is not uncommon for this to be the only steroid used. This will protect the person from low testosterone levels during the cycle. Unfortunately, once steroid use stops, natural testosterone levels will be very low. Natural testosterone production will start on its own again, but it will take a significant amount of time for levels to reach their previous high state. In fact, full recovery can take anywhere from a few months to a year.

Due to low natural testosterone levels after a cycle, most men are advised to undergo a PCT program. This greatly stimulates natural testosterone production and reduces overall recovery time. By itself, this will not bring your levels back to normal; there is no PCT plan on Earth that could do that. However, a solid PCT plan will ensure that you have enough testosterone to keep your body functioning properly while your levels continue to rise naturally. Clomid is an excellent choice for this purpose and one of the most commonly used drugs for PCT. Highly successful PCT programs often include Clomid and Nolvadex, as well as the powerful peptide hormone hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin).

Those who withdraw from Clomid therapy at the end of a cycle or any type of PCT plan and intend to stop the cycle for an extended period of time will rest in low testosterone conditions for an extended period of time. Not only is this a highly unhealthy condition, it can be accompanied by all the traditional symptoms of low testosterone. Many will find that cortisol levels rise significantly as testosterone levels are low, and as a result, body fat levels rise and strength and muscle mass decrease. If you are going to be off a course for an extended period of time, 8 weeks or more, there is no reason to leave the PCT program. If you’re going to quit for less than 8 weeks or switch to a low dose of exogenous testosterone, which is very common in avid bodybuilding circles, this is the only time PCT will be counterproductive.

Side effects of Clomid

Review of clomiphene citrate, clomid is one of the most well tolerated SERMs and antiestrogens on the market and this applies to both men and women. Although it has a very high tolerance threshold, side effects of Clomid exist and are possible. However, “maybe” is the key word and a very important word. Whenever anabolic steroids are discussed, as well as non-steroidal drugs used by anabolic steroid users, many seem to like to assume that side effects are guaranteed. This is not the case; In fact, most of them should be able to use Clomid without side effects.

When it comes to the possible side effects of Clomid, we find that most of them are quite rare. Some women who have used SERMs as a fertility aid have experienced ovarian enlargement, but again, this is very rare. Other possible side effects from using Clomid include:

  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • tides
  • Uterine bleeding (extremely rare)
  • Discomfort in the chest

The side effects of Clomid are also well known in that they include possible visual disturbances. The data show that approximately 1.5% of all those who take Clomid may experience some kind of visual impairment, usually in the form of blurred or blurred vision. In this case, the reception should be stopped and alternative medicines explored. In most cases, vision will return to normal soon after use is stopped. However, in recent years, there have been several cases of visual impairment that did not help to eliminate after discontinuation of the drug. Usually such cases are associated with long-term use of very high doses. Again, if visual disturbances occur, discontinue use immediately and select another SERM that suits your needs.

One last note about Clomid side effects: some may experience acne. This appears to be most common when SERM is used as part of a PCT program. In this case, the problem is not with the SERM, but with the large influx of natural testosterone that is now being produced. Most shouldn’t have a problem, but those who are already genetically sensitive to acne may develop acne on their back, shoulders, or chest.

Review of clomiphene citrate – conclusions: Clomid is an excellent SERM, and for years there has been a debate among anabolic steroid users about which SERM is better, Clomid or Nolvadex. In order to protect against gynecomastia during the cycle, any will do. Some have reported that Nolvadex tends to work better, but you may need to try both at different times to make an accurate assessment. Then we use PCT and both are equally effective and important. Many loudly claim that Nolvadex is a much better SERM for PCT purposes; however, there is a general problem with this statement. Most of those who use Clomid do not use it enough. On a milligram for milligram basis, Nolvadex is stronger, so if you are not planning your Clomid dose to match Nolvadex, you will be disappointed with Clomid. Learn and understand SERMs and various elements before using them.

Clomid and rudimentary twins

In the article “Clomid and rudimentary twins” we will answer the following questions:

  • Why Clomid can increase the likelihood of multiples?
  • Other factors that increase the chances of having twins.
  • How do I know if I’m pregnant with twins while taking Clomid?
  • What should I expect if I am expecting twins after Clomid?

How did I manage to get pregnant after many failures?

For every 20 pregnancies conceived with Clomid, only one will result in twins. Clomid, which is a pill taken by mouth to stimulate ovulation, causes twin pregnancies between 5 and 8 percent of cases. That’s less than one in 10 pregnancies. Your chances of conceiving triplets (or more) on Clomid are even lower: less than one percent (less than one in 100 pregnancies).

Fertility drugs have a reputation for causing multiple pregnancies – meaning more than one baby is conceived at a time, resulting in twins, triplets, or even more babies. If you are taking clomid (clomiphene), you may be nervous (or excited) about having two or more children at once. However, these noteworthy multiple high-order stories are more likely with injectable fertility drugs that are used during intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF).

Clomid and rudimentary twins. Why Clomid can increase the likelihood of multiples?

A woman’s ovaries contain hundreds of thousands of follicles, each containing immature eggs. Once a month, several follicles begin the development process. Usually only one follicle fully develops and releases an egg. This is because once the follicle is mature enough on its own, the follicle releases hormones into the bloodstream that signal the body to slow down the production of egg-stimulating hormones.

Clomid works by tricking the body into producing egg hormones, causing the follicles in the ovaries to continue to mature, increasing the chance that more than one egg will develop to maturity and be released at the time of ovulation.

Most twins conceived with Clomid will not be identical. In clinical trials of twin pregnancies, one in five were identical twins, while 80 percent of twin pregnancies were twins (not identical).

Why are they not identical? Clomid increases your chances of having twins because your ovaries can ovulate more than one egg: identical twins come from one egg, not two.

How do I know if I’m pregnant with twins while taking Clomid?

The symptoms of early pregnancy are no different from twins. An early positive pregnancy test result or the presence of a high level of hCG in a blood test are not reliable indicators of twin pregnancy. This means you won’t know if you’ve conceived twins until you have an ultrasound. Depending on your history, your doctor may prescribe it at the six-week mark (two weeks after you missed your period), but this may be too early to detect twins. However, by the eighth week, a twin pregnancy should appear.

Restoring testosterone levels in men.

Testosterone Restoration Using Enclomiphene Citrate in Men with Secondary Hypogonadism: A Pharmacodynamic and Pharmacokinetic Study:

Goals: To determine the pharmacodynamic profile of serum total testosterone and luteinizing hormone levels in men with secondary hypogonadism after initial single dose and long-term oral administration of enclomiphene citrate compared with transdermal testosterone.

To determine the effect of enclomiphene citrate versus transdermal testosterone on other hormones and markers in men with secondary hypogonadism.

Patients and Methods: This study was a randomized, single-blind, two-center, phase 2 study to evaluate the effect of three different doses of enclomiphene citrate (6.25, 12.5, and 25 mg) versus transdermal testosterone on 24-hour LH and total testosterone levels in patients. with secondary hypogonadism without comorbidities.

Forty-eight men were included in the study, with 4 men having basal testosterone levels greater than 350 ng/dl. Forty-four patients completed the study in accordance with the protocol. All subjects included in this study demonstrated low testosterone levels (<350 ng/dL) and low to normal LH levels (<12 IU/L) on at least two measurements.

Total testosterone and LH levels were measured at 1 hour intervals over 24 hours to evaluate the effect of each of the three treatment doses of enclomiphene citrate compared to a standard dose (5 g) of transdermal testosterone. To assess the effect of the initial single dose, total testosterone and LH were determined in the control population after a single oral or transdermal dose (day 1). These data were contrasted with those obtained after 6 weeks of continuous oral or transdermal therapy (day 42).

The pharmacokinetics of enclomiphene citrate have been evaluated in a selected group of patients.

Restoring testosterone levels in men – Results

After 6 weeks of regular dosing, mean (standard deviation, SD) total testosterone by day 42 was 604 (160) ng/dL for men taking the highest dose of enclomiphene citrate (enclomiphene citrate, 25 mg once daily) and 500 (278) ng/dl in men treated with transdermal testosterone. These values were greater than day 1 values but were not statistically different from each other (p=0.23, t-test).

All three doses of enclomiphene citrate increased testosterone concentration to time point 0 of each 24-hour study interval, mean, maximum, minimum and range of testosterone concentrations over the 24-hour period. Transdermal testosterone also caused an increase in total testosterone levels, although with great variability and LH suppression.

The patterns of change in total testosterone over a 24-hour period after 6 weeks of use can be described by a non-linear function with a morning rise, daytime troughs, and nighttime rises.

Enclomiphene citrate and transdermal testosterone increased total testosterone levels for 2 weeks, while having opposite effects on FSH and LH.

Treatment with enclomiphene citrate had no significant effect on levels of TSH, ACTH, cortisol, lipids, and bone markers. Both transdermal testosterone and enclomiphene citrate reduced insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (p < 0.05), but the suppression was more pronounced in the enclomiphene citrate group.


Enclomiphene citrate increases LH and total serum testosterone levels; however, no temporal relationship was noted between peak levels of the drug and these hormones.

Enclomiphene citrate consistently increased serum total testosterone levels within normal limits and increased LH and FSH levels above normal limits. The effects of LH and total testosterone were present for at least 1 week after treatment was stopped.

Preparations for stimulating ovulation

Preparations for stimulating ovulation. Injections and pills to help get pregnant.

To get pregnant, you need to fulfill three basic conditions:

  1. the woman has ovulated;
  2. the sperm has fertilized the egg;
  3. the fetus is firmly fixed in the uterus.


  1. drugs that enhance the production of FSH and LH, which help to get pregnant, stimulate ovulation – the growth of follicles on the ovaries;
  2. HCG helps the largest follicle to stay big enough to release an egg for a sperm to fertilize;
  3. progesterone prepares the inner layer of the uterus to secure the embryo and helps to carry the fetus.

Who needs preparations for stimulating ovulation

If the question “Why can’t I get pregnant?” is relevant for you, then you need to undergo an examination. Well, if your spouse does the same, it would help to establish the cause of infertility.

Ovulation stimulation should be recommended by a doctor after a series of examinations that will give accurate data on the cause of problems with independent conception. The doctor prescribes drugs to stimulate ovulation in cases where:

  • The patient noted a rare maturation of the egg and its release from the ovaries;
  • The couple has been trying to conceive for over a year to no avail;
  • Spouses older than 35-40 do not get pregnant within 6 months.

In this case, stimulation of ovulation is prohibited in the following cases:

  • Partner infertility
  • The presence of inflammation of the appendages, with andexitis
  • With pathologies of the uterus
  • In case of poor patency of the fallopian tubes

Drugs that help get pregnant, such as Clomid, are selected individually, depending on the results of tests and ultrasound examinations.

Frequently Asked Questions Related to Getting Pregnant

Can I get pregnant with PCOS?

The chance of getting pregnant with PCOS is very low. The greater the number and size of cysts, the less chance of conceiving a child.

Can I get pregnant with uterine fibroids?

The presence of fibroids significantly reduces the likelihood of pregnancy. The larger the diameter of the nodes, the less chance of pregnancy.

Can I get pregnant with endometriosis?

The probability of conceiving a baby with a diagnosis of endometriosis is, but very small. Severe stages of endometriosis can cause infertility.

Will I be able to get pregnant in the future if my first pregnancy ended in an abortion?

Doctors do not recommend ending the first pregnancy with a surgical abortion – the likelihood of infertility in this case is high. However, this is not the rule: some women safely bear children even after several abortions.

How to use prescribed preparations for stimulating ovulation

Drug regimens depend on the stimulation protocol, so you must strictly follow the doctor’s recommendations. Most drugs are administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously. Many of them have their own characteristics regarding the use and storage, and they are associated not only with the drug itself, but also with the form of release proposed by the manufacturer. In this regard, we advise you to make the first injection in our treatment room, where the nurse will tell you, and most importantly, show you how to properly administer a particular drug. We categorically do not recommend making injections according to the description on the Internet – the price of an error may be too high.

Risk of miscarriage in early pregnancy

Unfortunately, miscarriage is a fairly common occurrence among pregnant women. Despite all the achievements of modern medicine, the threat of interruption is still quite a formidable diagnosis for a future mother.

It is almost impossible to independently determine the threat of miscarriage in the first weeks of pregnancy. All signs of this formidable condition are no different from a normally developing pregnancy.

Minor discomfort in the lower abdomen, as well as a feeling of tension, are characteristic phenomena for pregnancy. Another sign should alert – aching pain in the lower abdomen, more reminiscent of menstrual pain, which radiates to the back and lower back.

Perceptible discomfort does not go away without taking medications, resuming with each change in position, and sometimes at rest. Often, there are discharges of varying intensity from the genitals. They can be from light to dark red. In this case, of course, an urgent appeal to a specialist is necessary.


Doctors calm expectant mothers, up to about 20 weeks of pregnancy, even with normal development, pain in the groin and side can be a little disturbing. They can occur with intensive walking and a sharp change in body position, but they pass very quickly.

Doctors associate this discomfort with a significantly increased load on the ligamentous apparatus of the growing uterus. This condition does not require special treatment, most often the doctor will recommend only limiting physical activity. But this does not mean that you should not go to the hospital with these problems.

And for those who have not yet been able to get pregnant, we recommend reading our articles on the topic of ovulation stimulation. Buy Clomid after the appointment of this drug to you by a doctor, you can also do it through our link. We wish you health and a strong family!

Phases of menstruation and the effect of hormones on them

After the first menstruation, a cycle is established in the female body, which on average lasts about 28 days.

The cycle of ovulation and menstruation is part of the life of any woman of reproductive age. Normally, it can last from 21 to 35 days, and all the processes that occur during this period in a woman’s body are conditionally divided into several phases.

Menstrual phase. Period lasting from 3 to 6 days – bleeding from the uterus. At this time, rejection of the mucous membrane (endometrium) occurs. When pregnancy occurs, a fertilized egg is attached to the endometrium.

Follicular phase. It starts at the same time as menstruation, but lasts a little longer – on average, 14 days. At this time, the follicle matures in the ovaries, in which, in turn, a new egg will mature. The restoration of the endometrium in the uterus also begins.

Ovulatory phase. This period lasts about three days and during this time the follicle ruptures – an egg ready for fertilization comes out of it. This process is called ovulation and can cause mild pain in the lower abdomen.

Luteal phase. Duration – from 11 to 16 days. At this time, there is an active production of hormones (estrogen and progesterone), which prepare the body for pregnancy. During this phase, there is often a phenomenon such as PMS – premenstrual syndrome.

PMS is a complex of symptoms that are associated with changes in the hormonal background of a woman. For example, they include: swelling of the mammary glands, pain in the lower abdomen, mood changes and increased appetite.

Hormones and menstruation

The main hormones during menstruation can be called follicle-stimulating and luteinizing. Both of them provide the production of progesterone and estrogen. These active substances play an extremely important role in a woman’s body, so if you have menstrual irregularities or suspected pathology of the reproductive system, you should take an analysis for hormones. It allows you to identify uterine fibroids, polycystic ovaries and even infertility.


For any difficulties with conception, as a rule, the gynecologist refers the patient to the study of hormones. For diagnosis, it is necessary to know their “healthy” concentration at different segments of the cycle – based on these data and test results, the doctor can make a diagnosis and prescribe a specific therapy.

Hormones during the menstrual phase.

Analyzes are given on the 3-5th day from the onset of menstrual bleeding

  • Follicle-stimulating FSH;
  • luteinizing hormone LH;
  • free testosterone;
  • estradiol;
  • dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate;
  • prolactin;
  • androstenedione;
  • sex hormone binding protein;
  • thyroid hormones;

Hormones in the luteal phase.

Analyzes are given on the 20-22nd day of the menstrual cycle.

You also need to do an ultrasound of the pelvic organs on the 5-7th day of the menstrual cycle.

Folliculometry 3-4 times during 1 menstrual cycle.

Clomid in men with low testosterone with and without prior treatment

Clomid in Men: This study aims to investigate whether men with low testosterone due to altered brain regulation of male hormone function who have previously been treated with testosterone may respond in the same way as men who have not been so treated to clomiphene citrate, an agent usually used in female infertility, which has been shown to improve the secretion of male hormones in some cases.

Detailed description clomid in men

Clomiphene, an FDA-approved oral drug for the treatment of female infertility, has been shown to normalize testosterone levels in men with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It seems to be safe and well tolerated. This study will compare the response of testosterone to clomiphene citrate in men. Veterans with previously untreated hypothalamic hypogonadism with responses from similar patients already treated with injectable or transdermal testosterone. This is an open, prospective, interventional study that will be conducted in an outpatient specialized medical facility.

Parameter. We will randomize 64 veteran hypogonadal males, equally divided between naive and previous treatment, to be treated with Clomid for 8 weeks, increasing the initial dose from 25 mg to 50 mg/day in those who fail to achieve target testosterone levels (450 ng/dL).

After the first 3 weeks. Endpoint measurements performed in the Phoenix VA Health Care System (PVAHCS) clinical laboratory will be total testosterone as well as bioavailable testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin. Total testosterone levels will be reported after 8 weeks of treatment. as the primary endpoint. Safety measures (complete blood count, liver function, PSA) will be assessed at 8 points. weeks also. This study will help guide the design of future studies of clomiphene in men with hypogonadism.

The effect of testosterone

The effect of testosterone – For a long time it has been considered that testosterone has an adverse effect on the likelihood of the development and course of diseases of the cardiovascular system. This point of view was based primarily on the fact that men are more likely to suffer from such diseases. In addition, it is known that estrogens, historically considered as androgen antagonists, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disorders in women. The latter, in particular, is proved by the increase in the number of such diseases after menopause.

In recent years, this position has been seriously revised. Methodically correct studies have not confirmed the relationship between the level of testosterone in the blood and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in men. In some studies, it has even been shown that a higher concentration of the hormone can have a beneficial effect.

effect of testosterone

Treatment with testosterone preparations or taking clomid is also not accompanied by an increase in the frequency of myocardial infarctions. Angina pectoris or strokes, moreover, it is assumed that the likelihood of these complications will decrease. A number of studies have also shown that the level of testosterone in the blood of men is inversely associated with mortality from both CVD and from all causes in general.

The effect of lowering testosterone levels

The nature of the negative effect of a decrease in testosterone levels on the development of CVD has not been definitively established. Nevertheless, existing data indicate that the adverse effect of hypogonadism on the cardiovascular system can be carried out through metabolic syndrome (MS). The latter is a well-known combination of various vascular risk factors, including impaired glucose tolerance, obesity, hypertension and dyslipidemia. The risk of MS in patients with hypogonadism is significantly increased.

These data are so convincing that it has even been suggested that it is advisable to include hypogonadism among the criteria for the diagnosis of MS. At the same time, the study of issues arising after the study of these epidemiological data continues. What is the cause and what is the consequence: do MS components lead to suppression of testicular function or does hypogonadism contribute to their development? What are the mechanisms of these relationships? An unambiguous answer to these questions has not yet been received. The most likely is the existence of a bidirectional relationship between hypogonadism and MS.

The effect of testosterone on the health of men

It is also assumed that testosterone and other androgens stimulate the proliferation of endothelial cell precursors in the bone marrow, as well as their release into the bloodstream and connection with areas of endothelial defects. In young men with hypogonadism, a decrease in the concentration of endothelial cell precursors in the blood was noted. While substitution therapy led to a significant increase in these indicators. In addition, the biologically active form of testosterone — dihydrotestosterone also stimulates the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells themselves. A similar effect of dihydrotestosterone has been shown in experiments using the aorta of a bull and human vessels.

Testosterone also affects the release by endothelial cells of various para- and autocrine mediators, as well as cytokines. In particular, it has been shown that hypogonadism is accompanied by an increase in the level of endothelin-1, which has a pronounced vasoconstrictive effect. Treatment with testosterone preparations was accompanied by a decrease in the concentration of this substance. Testosterone also suppresses the synthesis of many cytokines in the endothelium, which have a negative effect on the function of these cells.

Testosterone Preparations

The testosterone preparations are also able to have a direct beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system. In particular, testosterone has been shown to cause dilation of the coronary arteries. A similar effect has been demonstrated both in experimental and clinical conditions. It is assumed that this is due to the activation of potassium channels.

The possible clinical significance of these data was demonstrated in a randomized double-blind study of the effect of testosterone. On the results of a physical activity test in men with stable angina pectoris. In the group receiving testosterone, an increase in exercise tolerance was noted, which was assessed by changes in the electrocardiogram. The degree of improvement was greater in patients who initially had more severe hormonal disorders. The existence of such an effect has been confirmed in a number of other works. Interestingly, for the first time the beneficial effect of testosterone on angina pectoris was described more than 70 years ago.

Superovulation: what is the difference from ovulation and how is it caused?

The path to conceiving a child can be difficult and require the use of assisted reproductive technologies . In order for IVF to be successful, it is necessary to obtain several eggs. With natural ovulation, one, rarely two follicles ripen. And superovulation is a process when several mature in the ovary at the same time. It is created in the protocols of assisted reproductive technologies with the help of medicines. After receiving the eggs, they are fertilized and the embryos are transferred to the uterus.

Why do we need superovulation?

In in vitro fertilization, there is an IVF-EC protocol, or IVF in a natural (natural) cycle, when an egg is removed for fertilization during normal ovulation. This option is shown with a reduced ovarian reserve, when the number of immature follicles ends.

Indications for IVF-EC are also considered thrombophilia, antiphospholipid syndrome, habitual miscarriage, a history of oncopathology, contraindications to hormonal stimulation or poor quality of oocytes in response to it.

In IVF-EC, the frequency of pregnancy after embryo transfer is significantly lower, which is due both to the initial health conditions of the patients and to the peculiarity of the procedure – there is no possibility to choose an oocyte.


At the age of 40, according to world research, IVF EC is successful in 3-6% of cases, under 39 years of age, indicators vary in the spectrum of 11-53%.

Superovulation (ovarian stimulation protocol) allows you to achieve success much faster. With this phenomenon, 8-14 follicles mature in the ovary. And it’s not so much: some of them will be empty, some of them will be of poor quality. On average, 5-6 of the 10 follicles obtained during superovulation are selected for fertilization. The more oocytes, the higher the probability of success.

How is it stimulated?

To stimulate the maturation of a dozen follicles at once, hormonal drugs are used. They temporarily suppress their own hormones – luteinizing and follicle–stimulating (LH and FSH) and artificially stimulate the growth and maturation of follicles in the ovaries – with almost the same hormones created with the help of genetic engineering. Why do they do this?

The process of suppressing the production of the patient’s own hormones is necessary to control ovulation, otherwise there will be no eggs in part of the follicles at the puncture stage. In the natural cycle, the peak of LH production, the instigator of ovulation, occurs spontaneously. And without control over it, the eggs may not be in the follicles, but already outside – it will not be possible to get them from where.

At the final stage of maturation of oocytes, hCG hormone is injected, which affects the same way as luteinizing. This is how they achieve simultaneous and complete maturation of cells and their readiness for fertilization. As a rule, the injection of chorionic gonadotropin is carried out in the afternoon and after 36 hours a puncture with egg collection is prescribed.

25 signs of pregnancy

Do you know the first signs of pregnancy? Below is a list of 25 signs of pregnancy. Signs of pregnancy, depending on their reliability and informativeness, are usually divided into 3 categories: possible (the presence of these signs indicates that pregnancy is possible), probable (the presence of these signs indicates that the probability that you are pregnant is very high) and accurate (the presence of these signs always indicates the presence of pregnancy).


Possible signs of pregnancy:

1. Absence of menstruation

In the absence (delay) of menstruation, pregnancy is primarily suspected. It is customary to talk about the delay of menstruation in cases when, against the background of a regular menstrual cycle, menstruation did not occur in the expected time.

Pregnancy, however, is not the only reason for the absence (delay) of menstruation. Other possible reasons for the absence of menstruation are:

  • Stress
  • Strong physical activity (for example, fitness classes)
  • Illness
  • Changes in the mode of life, work (for example, switching to night shift work)
  • Taking certain medications (for example, hormonal drugs)
  • Overweight
  • Underweight
  • Incorrect counting (in case of irregular menstrual cycle)
  • The period close to menopause
  • Menopause

2. Unusual menstruation

A menstrual cycle that differs in any way from the usual one: longer, or vice versa, shorter; begins earlier or later, is accompanied by more or less abundant discharge – any of these variations and their combinations may indicate pregnancy.

It should be noted that in addition to the beginning of pregnancy, such menstrual cycle disorders can be observed in some gynecological diseases, therefore, the identification of this sign should serve as a reason to consult a doctor (either for a positive diagnosis of pregnancy, or for the diagnosis and treatment of a disease that violates the menstrual cycle).

3. The “feeling” of pregnancy

At the very beginning of pregnancy, some women feel uterine spasms or even pain. Most of all, uterine spasms resemble premenstrual pain.

What other signs of pregnancy are there?

Nausea and vomiting

These are some of the most common early signs that a woman is expecting a baby. Although nausea and vomiting may appear from the first weeks, most often these signs occur from the 6th to the 12th week. If nausea and vomiting appear for the first time during pregnancy, they are usually considered as signs of early gestosis (toxicosis).

Nausea and vomiting can be observed in a number of other conditions (diseases) that are in no way related to the expectation of a child (gastritis, stomach ulcer, enteritis, enterocolitis, migraine) – however, in such cases, in addition to nausea and vomiting, there are usually other symptoms of the disease that are not characteristic of pregnant women.

Libido changes

Changes in a woman’s sexual desire are caused by a complex of emotional and physical changes occurring in the body of a pregnant woman. These changes can either increase or decrease sexual desire.

Physical changes include increased breast sensitivity (which can also make touching more pleasant or extremely unpleasant), nausea, increased blood flow in the genital area, etc. Psychological changes are associated with the influence of female sex hormones on the nervous system.

Due to the extreme sensitivity of the problem of sexual desire, its changes are usually considered last of all as signs of pregnancy, especially if these changes are selective or chronic.

What else?

Increased urination

It can be observed from an early date. A woman experiences frequent urge to urinate, which usually ends with the release of a small amount of urine. The increased urge to urinate during pregnancy is explained by the fact that the uterus, which is increasing in size, presses on the bladder, reduces its volume, and the ability to accumulate urine.

Also, urination can be observed in diseases of the bladder or urethra – cystitis, urethritis (in such cases, frequent urges are accompanied by pain in the lower abdomen, burning sensation directly during urination, temperature), endocrine diseases such as diabetes mellitus (frequent urination is accompanied by the release of a large amount of urine and intense thirst).

For women who want to get pregnant, we remind you: contact your gynecologist, and if he writes you a prescription for clomid, take the opportunity to buy clomid cheaper through our partner link!

Unusual taste preferences

Despite the fact that many people associate pregnancy with the desire to eat pickles and ice cream, the taste preferences of pregnant women can be different and are not limited to the products described at all. Some studies show that 68% of pregnant women experience unusual taste preferences, which are sometimes of an amazing nature (the desire to eat raw vegetables, chalk, earth, lime, raw meat, etc.).

And although most preferences are safe for health (in a reasonable amount), some pregnancies may have so-called picacism – the desire to eat inedible substances such as chalk, starch, etc.

A change in taste preferences can also be observed in iron deficiency anemia. In the case of anemia, taste preferences are combined with other symptoms: brittle and dry hair, nail stratification, cracks in the corners of the mouth, pale skin, dizziness, increased fatigue.

And a few more signs of pregnancy in women

  • Fatigue
  • Montgomery ‘s Bumps. (Montgomery’s bumps are small bumps on the areola of the breast (the circumscription circle). They do not pose any threat to health, and their appearance is a frequent sign of pregnancy).
  • Skin changes
  • Stretch marks

That’s all for today, and we wish everyone who bought clomid from our link to get a positive pregnancy test!