Stress during pregnancy

Researchers have identified a link between common mental illnesses and complications during pregnancy, such as pre-eclampsia and infections that lead to stress. The results of the study were published in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (stress during pregnancy).

Scientists from Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School conducted a study that lasted 40 years. The researchers wanted to find out whether prenatal stress affected a person’s response to stressful situations in adulthood.

Experts followed 40 men and 40 women from the moment of birth to their fortieth birthday. Half of the participants had a history of severe depression or psychosis that was in remission.

The researchers say that the mothers of some of the study participants had complications during pregnancy, such as fever due to an infectious disease or pre-eclampsia. One in three mothers who participated in the study had an infectious disease, and one in six had preeclampsia, which increases the level of cytokines. It turns out that the experts analyzed the data of those people who in the womb were exposed to pro-inflammatory cytokines.

stress during pregnancy

It is noted that tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 regulators of the immune system initiate inflammation in response to infection or injury. They can also be activated in response to stress.

The team evaluated the correlation between the participants neurological responses and their prenatal exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines. The researchers did this by showing participants images designed to stimulate a stress response during an MRI scan of the brain.

It was found that prenatal exposure to pro-inflammatory cytokines caused by stress in mothers affected men and women after 40 years. Among all participants, lower prenatal levels of necrosis factor-alpha caused increased hypothalamus activity in adulthood. This area of the brain is responsible for regulating the level of cortisol, the so-called stress hormone.

However, only in men did lower levels of necrosis factor-alpha cause a more active connection between the hypothalamus and the anterior cingulate gyrus, which is responsible for controlling impulses and emotions. In female participants, higher levels of IL-6 in the prenatal period correlated with increased activity in the hippocampus, a region of the brain that helps control memory and arousal associated with stressful stimuli.

Absence of pregnancy

Absence of pregnancy – one of the causes of female infertility is premature ovarian failure. In 74% of cases, the only chance to get pregnant is to perform in vitro fertilization using donor oocytes. In this regard, it is relevant to search for new approaches to solving this problem.

The incidence of premature ovarian failure in the female population is 1.5%, and in the structure of secondary amenorrhea-up to 10%. There are several theories that explain the causes of ovarian insufficiency: pre-and post-pubertal destruction of oocytes, chromosomal abnormalities, autoimmune disorders, etc. A typical portrait of a patient: a young girl with the presence of menopausal symptoms, who does not become pregnant against the background of secondary amenorrhea. The diagnostic criteria for insufficiency include oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea for 4-6 months, the level of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) in the blood above 25 IU/l in two studies with an interval of at least four weeks, a decrease in the level of estradiol (E2) and anti-muller hormone (AMH) in the blood.

Hormone replacement therapy is recognized as a pathogenetic approach to treatment. However, at the moment, there are no effective treatment regimens that can improve the prognosis for fertility recovery. An alternative method of treatment is placental therapy with the drug Melsmon.

Clinical case absence of pregnancy

A 22-year-old patient came to the medical center with complaints about the absence of menstruation (amenorrhea) for a year and the absence of pregnancy for four years, a feeling of hot flashes up to ten times a day, hyperhidrosis, decreased libido, lethargy, increased fatigue, shortness of breath, insomnia. The patient has been married for four years, the first marriage, with a regular sexual life in the absence of any methods of contraception, pregnancy in this marriage did not occur. The patient’s husband underwent a study of the state of reproductive health. The male factor of infertility is excluded. Menstruation in a patient from 11 years old, established immediately, duration-five days, after 30 days.

absence of pregnancy

From the anamnesis, it is known about the violation of the menstrual cycle in the form of scanty bloody discharge (oligomenorrhea) and their gradual disappearance. When examined in the mirrors, a fibrous polyp of the cervical canal was found. A hysteroscopy was performed with separate diagnostic curettage and removal of the cervical canal polyp. Histological conclusion: glandular endometrial hyperplasia with elements of polyposis on the background of chronic endometritis. Fibrotic polyp of the cervix. The somatic history is not burdened. No previous tests have been performed for sexually transmitted infections. He has no professional harms or bad habits. For four months, in order to regulate the menstrual cycle, she took Regulon (she did not take the drug clomid), then stopped taking it due to a sharp increase in the body mass index (after the withdrawal of the drug Regulon, the weight returned to its previous values).

When collecting a family history, it turned out that the mother’s menstrual function stopped at the age of 34. Due to the lack of pregnancy, the family is under stress.

Difficulties with conception and clomid

Approximately 20% of married couples who have difficulties with conception, this is because, a woman’s ovaries do not produce and release an egg in each menstrual cycle (anovulation). Clomid acts by causing a gland in the brain (the anterior pituitary gland) to release hormones that stimulate ovulation.

It must be remembered that there are many causes of anovulation, so Clomid may not be effective in all cases.

When accepting Clomid, it should be 28-32 days from the beginning of one period to the next. Your ovaries should release the egg 6-12 days after a course of Clomid. You should have sexual intercourse at this time to increase your chances of conception.

If menstruation does not arrive after the 35th day there are two likely possibilities: the dose of Clomid was not enough to get ovulation, or you are pregnant.

If your menstrual period is overdue, contact your doctor who wrote you a prescription for clomid and he will advise you what steps to take.

difficulties with conception

Before taking Clomid, your doctor should perform a gynecological examination before you start taking the drug. This is necessary in order to ensure that there are no physical conditions that could prevent you from becoming pregnant or that could indicate that Clomid is not the right remedy for you.

Do not take Clomid if you are allergic to any of the ingredients of the drug. Also, do not take Clomid if you are pregnant.

To avoid accidental ingestion in the early stages of pregnancy, you should perform tests during each treatment cycle to determine if ovulation is occurring. You should have a pregnancy test before starting your next course of Clomid therapy.

Tell your doctor immediately if you notice the following side effects:

  • nausea or vomiting;
  • breast discomfort;
  • headache
  • insomnia, nervousness, depression, fatigue, dizziness, or delirium
  • rash or skin irritation;
  • increased frequency of urination;
  • hair loss;
  • fever;
  • vaginal discharge;
  • seizures;
  • vision problems;
  • increased heart rate;
  • heartbeat;

In general, the drug is absolutely safe. We wish you good health and a successful conception of the child, even if you are currently experiencing difficulties with conception!

How to stimulate ovulation?

So, how to stimulate ovulation? Problems of the reproductive system of the female body, as you know, can sometimes be solved without surgical intervention. It is enough just to go to the pharmacy for the “magic” pills prescribed by the doctor the day before. And, while your eyes are scattered when choosing medicines, we will help you understand the principle of the most popular of them, and what is the effect of each.

How to stimulate ovulation: Clomid.

Clomid was originally developed as a pilot version of a universal drug for breast cancer, but, failing to meet high expectations, began to be used as a drug to stimulate ovulation among women who want to become pregnant. So, clomid can be recommended by doctors in three cases:

  1. If the absence of ovulation is caused by a previously diagnosed polycystic ovary syndrome.
  2. If infertility does not have a certain genesis, that is, with ideal medical indicators, a woman still does not get pregnant after more than a year of intensive attempts. In this case, clomid is usually used in conjunction with another drug – metformin, which, in turn, increases the level of insulin and promotes ovulation.
  3. If in vitro fertilization (IVF, ICSI, etc. ) requires additional guarantees of the success of the procedure. Although from a medical point of view, this use of clomid is not sufficiently justified, many patients personally ask their doctor to include clomid in their treatment course, since this drug is considered effective when it comes to increasing the chances of becoming pregnant.

Studies and many years of experience show that about 80% of women who have problems with ovulation, observe the release of an egg from the ovaries after the first application of clomid. However, only 30% of patients manage to get pregnant immediately after the first cycle. However, a six-month course of clomid use is considered quite optimal, so even if you did not manage to get pregnant after your first use, you still have a good chance of seeing the long-awaited two stripes over the next few months, provided that you follow the medication course.

how to stimulate ovulation

The chronology of the process of using clomid is very simple. After your doctor has conducted a full medical examination and written out a prescription for the purchase of the drug, you can safely go to the pharmacy. Before use, it is necessary to consult a doctor about the interval of use, but, as a rule, clomid tablets are taken on the third to seventh day of the menstrual cycle. After a week from the beginning of the menstrual cycle, lead an active sexual life, preferably with a break interval of one day, so that your partner has time to accumulate sperm ready for fertilization. If by the tenth day of your menstrual cycle, your cervical mucus has the consistency of egg white, it means that you are on the right track, and that ovulation will occur soon. After another week or two, you can start using pregnancy tests and hope for the best.

The side effects of clomid are insignificant, and do not pose a direct threat to the female body. In the most frequent cases, abdominal pain, insomnia and weight gain are observed. The worst possible development is the appearance of ovarian cysts or the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, the chance of such consequences appearing is very, very small.

Menstrual cycles and ovulation

The duration of the female cycle varies. The most common cycle duration is between 23 and 35 days. The difference in the length of the menstrual cycles, as a rule, concerns the period before ovulation (the so-called follicular or follicular phase). In most women, from ovulation (when the egg comes out of the ovary) to the beginning of menstruation, it takes from 12 to 16 days (the so-called luteal phase).

Phases of the menstrual cycles

Menstruation: The first day of the menstrual cycles is the first day of menstruation (day 1). Menstruation then lasts from 3 to 7 days. Surely, you know that in the presence of menstrual pain, the most severe pain you experience in the first few days of menstruation. This is because your hormones actively promote the rejection of the uterine mucosa that has grown during the previous menstrual cycle.

Preparing for ovulation: At the beginning of your cycle, the pituitary gland, located at the base of the brain, produces follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). This is the main hormone that stimulates the ovaries to produce eggs. Follicles are fluid-filled vesicles in the ovaries. Each follicle contains an immature egg. FSH promotes the maturation of a certain number of follicles and the production of the hormone estrogen. On the first day of menstruation, the estrogen content is at its lowest level. Then it begins to rise along with the maturation of the follicles.

As the follicles develop, usually one of them becomes “dominant”, and in this large follicle the egg matures. At the same time, the growing level of estrogen in the body is responsible for saturating the lining of the uterine cavity with nutrients and blood. This is so that in the event of pregnancy, the fertilized egg will have all the nutrients and support needed for growth. High levels of estrogen also contribute to the formation of mucus, a “sperm-friendly” environment (or scientifically, cervical (cervical) mucus of the fertile phase). Perhaps you have paid attention to not thick sticky discharge, which may have a cloudy whitish hue. Spermatozoa move more easily through this mucus and survive for several days.

Understanding the ovulation cycle

Ovulation: The level of estrogen in the body is steadily increasing, and at some point it leads to a sharp increase in the level of luteinizing hormone (ovulatory surge of LH). The surge of LH leads to the rupture of the dominant follicle and the release of a mature egg from it, which then enters the fallopian tube. This process is called ovulation.

Menstrual cycles and ovulation

Many women believe that ovulation occurs on day 14, but 14 days is the average, and most women usually ovulate on another day of the menstrual cycle. The day of ovulation differs from cycle to cycle. Some women claim to experience a pain spasm during ovulation, but most women do not feel anything, and ovulation passes without any signs.

After ovulation: After release, the egg moves along the fallopian tube towards the uterus. Its life cycle is up to 24 hours. The life cycle of the sperm is more variable, however, and is usually between 3 and 5 days. Thus, the days immediately preceding ovulation and the day of ovulation itself are the most fertile – it is then that you have the greatest chance of becoming pregnant. Immediately after ovulation, the follicle begins to produce another hormone – progesterone.

Progesterone contributes to the subsequent preparation of the uterine mucosa for the reception of a fertilized egg. Meanwhile, the empty follicle in the ovary begins to shrink, but it continues to produce progesterone and begins to produce estrogen. During this time, you may experience premenstrual tension syndrome (PMS), such as breast soreness, bloating, drowsiness, depression, and irritability.