What drugs stimulate ovulation

Increasingly, women are turning to a gynecologist with problems with conception. But medicine does not stand still, it is constantly developing, so the desired pregnancy can occur after treatment with special drugs that stimulate ovulation.

Reasons for lack of ovulation

Most often, the inability to get pregnant is associated with the lack of ovulation as such or with its incorrect course. There may be several reasons for this:

  • Diseases of the pelvic organs of an infectious and inflammatory nature (chronic salpingoophoritis, polycystic ovaries, cysts, etc.).
  • Too small a woman’s weight is usually less than 48 kg, in which there is insufficient production of sex hormones, which leads to a lack of ovulation and amenorrhea.
  • Hormonal changes in the body against the background of stress, excessive weight (when the body mass index is more than 25), certain diseases of the thyroid gland (Hypo – or hyperthyroidism), etc.
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives. In this case, the body stops producing hormones on its own, and it sometimes takes several months to fully restore this ability.
  • Excessive physical activity can also negatively affect ovulation, especially if it is associated with taking synthetic sports nutrition supplements. These drugs have a very negative effect on the female reproductive system.

In what cases do I need stimulation and when it is not carried out

Ovulation stimulation is possible when a couple cannot conceive a child for a year. If the age of a woman is 35+, this period can be reduced to six months. In any case, a thorough diagnosis (preferably of both partners) is necessary to identify the true causes of infertility and make a decision about stimulation. In particular, the following diagnostic tests are carried out:

Ovulation stimulation

  • Collection of the patient’s medical history, which takes into account her age, the presence/absence of abortions and pregnancies, miscarriages, chronic diseases, carrying an intrauterine device, etc.
  • The patency of the fallopian tubes is checked. Non-operative and operative methods are used for this purpose. The first include metrosalpingography (x-ray examination). A variation is ultrasonic metrosalpingography, when using a contrast agent and ultrasound equipment to check the patency of pipes. These methods are not universal and have their disadvantages, such as the harmfulness of radiation and possible errors in the result. For more accurate diagnostics, laparoscopy is used-an operative study, but it gives the most reliable results.
  • The usual ultrasound examination, which can show possible inflammatory processes, polycystic, various neoplasms and other pathologies of the female reproductive system.
  • In some cases, ovulatory failures may occur due to hormonal disorders, so it is mandatory to donate blood to determine the amount of female sex hormones. At the same time, it is recommended to conduct research on the activity of the thyroid gland, since this organ has a direct impact on female fertility.
  • The partner’s spermogram should also be performed, since sometimes the reason for the absence of pregnancy can be insufficient mobility and viability of spermatozoa.
  • Test the compatibility of the partners. If the results are unfavorable, the doctor may suggest artificial insemination.

It should be noted that contraindications to stimulation are inflammatory diseases of the uterus and (or) ovaries, tubes, adjacent organs and systems (urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract), hormonal fluctuations, the onset of menopause or pre-climatic period.

After diagnostic measures and in the absence of absolute contraindications, the gynecologist decides to prescribe drugs that stimulate ovulation.

Methods of ovulation stimulation

Ovulation stimulation is impossible without taking vitamin complexes and useful trace elements. True female” vitamins include E, A, B (folic acid is required), and C. additionally, vitamin D is recommended, especially for women living in areas where Sunny days are rare.

Methods of ovulation stimulation

Vitamin A helps follicle maturation and regulates the amount of cervical fluid. B vitamins are recommended to be taken both at the planning stage of pregnancy and during it, as they not only prolong the luteal phase of the cycle, promote endometrial growth and egg maturation, but also during pregnancy eliminate toxicosis, prevent miscarriages and help healthy fetal development. Vitamin E stimulates the maturation of the yellow body, “supports” ovulation itself and increases the production of progesterone, which is especially useful when this hormone is insufficient. Vitamin C helps normalize the hormonal background, and also serves as a means to prevent the development of DNA abnormalities in the future fetus. Also, when preparing for pregnancy, it is advisable to monitor the sufficient intake of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in the body. They are most concentrated in oily fish, synthetic fish oil, and Flaxseed and olive oils. Drugs containing selenium, zinc, and iron are also used to stimulate ovulation.

All these methods of restoring ovulatory function are effective. However, you can’t use them at random. A doctor’s consultation is necessary, as well as an extensive and comprehensive diagnosis of both partners.

Ovulation stimulation: from indications to prescription.

Long ago in the past, there were times when problems with ovulation in a woman meant only one thing for a married couple — infertility. Medicine has learned to successfully solve this problem, and in many cases, treatment ends with conception and the birth of a healthy child. In this case, ovulation stimulation is performed with drugs that are individually selected for each patient in accordance with her physiological characteristics. We will tell you in which cases the doctor can prescribe ovulation stimulation, what should precede it, what is the scheme of the procedure and its effectiveness.

Why do we need the stimulation of ovulation

Ovulation stimulation is prescribed only if there are direct indications for it, since if the woman’s reproductive system is in order, then she herself produces viable eggs.

Ovulation in a healthy woman of childbearing age is the process of releasing a fully Mature and ready-to-fertilize egg from the follicle. Exit is preceded by a long preparation. Once a month, several eggs sleeping in the ovary are awakened by hormones and begin to increase in size. After about ten days, the dominant follicle is released from them, the size of which can reach 18-20 mm. When the egg is fully Mature, the follicle shell is torn. The egg goes into the abdominal cavity, and then enters the fallopian tube. There, within 24 hours, she waits for fertilization. If it does not happen for some reason, the egg dies and the whole process is repeated in a month. Usually one egg is involved in ovulation, but sometimes there are two or three. In this case, twins are born. If the embryo divides itself into 2 parts after fertilization (that is, initially these 2 parts were formed from one egg and one sperm), then twins are born.

ovulation stimulation

In some women who are ready to become mothers both physically and mentally, pregnancy does not occur because her ovaries do not form a Mature egg. If conception does not occur for 6 consecutive cycles, ovulation stimulation may be prescribed. It has a single goal — to help the body form a full-fledged egg, capable of fertilization, and push it to exit the follicle. The essence of the method is to target the ovaries with certain medications in order to increase the release of hormones necessary for ovulation.

Ovulation stimulation for conception, the doctor prescribes only if there are:

  • Anovulatory infertility (hormonal dysfunction that is incurable in another way; polycystic ovary; a woman’s high or low body mass index;)
  • Preparation for artificial insemination by IVF.
  • Infertility of unknown origin.

Preliminary study

Before starting the ovulation stimulation procedure, the doctor necessarily prescribes a number of studies, both laboratory and instrumental. Their purpose is to identify possible contraindications:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs and ovaries;
  • violations of the patency of the fallopian tubes.

A relative contraindication is the age of a woman over 40 years, because in this case, the risk of giving birth to a sick child increases.

So, instrumental research includes:

  • Examination of the therapist to identify common diseases in which pregnancy is contraindicated.
  • ECG.
  • Ultrasound of the pelvis and mammary glands.
  • Examination of the patency of the fallopian tubes by laparoscopy or radiography with contrast material.
  • Folliculometry.
  • Fluorography.
  • Types of laboratory tests:

Clinical blood test.

  • Blood tests for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C.
  • The General analysis of urine.
  • PCR – examination of smears from the vagina and cervical canal.
  • Examination of smears from the vagina, cervical canal and urethra for atypical cells and the degree of purity.
  • Infectious examination (for chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc.).
  • Determination of the blood level of female sex hormones, thyroid hormones, prolactin and testosterone (performed repeatedly).

After a full examination and obtaining a medical opinion on the absence of diseases that can prevent conception or provoke the birth of a sick child, it is necessary to assess the ovarian reserve of a woman. Using this procedure, is defined by:

  • the chance to receive in the process of stimulating ovulation of a positive result;
  • intensity of stimulation;
  • optimal scheme;
  • the most effective drugs and their individual dose.

To assess the ovarian reserve, a woman gives blood for analysis after taking hormonal drugs. Based on the obtained indicators, a conclusion is made about the prospect of artificial ovulation stimulation.

The choice of the scheme of hyperovulation

Ovulation stimulation is performed according to one of the regulated schemes, which describes in detail the method, dose and duration of administration of the drug. The doctor selects the scheme taking into account:

  • result of ovarian reserve assessment;
  • female body mass;
  • the results of the previous stimulation procedures (if any).

All drugs used for stimulation are hormonal, but differ from each other in the type of hormone they are based on — follicle-stimulating or luteinizing (necessary to support the development of the egg). There are four groups of tools for ovulation stimulation.

  • Preparations based on HMG (human menopausal gonadotropin), containing follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones in the same proportion. This includes, for example, “Menopur”.
  • Drugs based on FSH, whose principle of action is close to the natural hormone — “Gonal”, “Puregon”.
  • Drugs that are based on the suppression of estrogen and increase the level of FSH to the required norm — “Clostylbegit”, “Clomid“, “Clomifen”.
  • Hormonal agents that stimulate the rupture of the follicle shell and the timely release of the egg – “Prophase”, “Horagon”, “Pregnil”, “Ovitrel”.

Usually, a combination of drugs is used in the schemes.

Ovulation stimulation is recommended to be performed no more than 6 times, since it can lead to depletion of the ovaries. If the desired pregnancy does not occur as a result of stimulation, it is necessary to choose other methods of treatment.

Despite the fact that ovulation stimulation is a well-established method of treating infertility, it should be remembered that it also has its own limits of application, indications and contraindications, and side effects. In addition, even if it did not lead to the long-awaited result, it is important to know: modern Reproductology is not limited to this method.

Clomid is one of the best antiestrogens in bodybuilding

Application of Clomid in bodybuilding

Both Amateurs and professional athletes often use Clomid. Similarly, athletes often use a variety of other chemicals, such as anabolic steroids, HCG, tamoxifen, thyroid hormones, etc. Unlike other anabolic steroids or hormones, Clomid does not reduce testosterone levels. On the contrary, causing a surge of LH, the drug increases the level of testosterone.

Almost all anabolic steroids have both androgenic and anabolic properties. In some cases, anabolic steroids contribute to the formation of estrogens. With the help of an enzyme, aromatases are also converted into the female sex hormone, estrogen. Estrogen contributes to the development of gynecomastia in bodybuilders.

Although bodybuilders like to show off their bodies, it is unlikely that any of them will want to flaunt their effeminate Breasts. Therefore, Clomid is used to block the development of gynecomastia. By blocking estrogen receptors, it prevents the development of gynecomastia caused by anabolic steroids.

When Clomid blocks estrogen receptors in the brain, the hypothalamus causes a surge of LH and FSH – releasing hormones, which leads to an increase in sex hormone synthesis. LH and FSH also affect the testicles, causing further testosterone synthesis. Testosterone gives the athlete an extra boost. Some bodybuilders take Clomid only to get an anabolic effect. Others use it in combination with other steroids and growth hormone.

Clomid dosage for bodybuilders

Clomid is taken only once a day. Experts in the field of bodybuilding advise taking it alone or in combination with low-activity anabolic steroids. Most bodybuilders take anabolic steroids for a few months and then switch to Clomid. The tool provides a surge of testosterone.

The exact time when you should start taking the drug is unknown. But there is a recommendation to start taking Clomid on the 7-10 day after the end of taking steroid medications.

How do experienced athletes take Clomid

Many athletes and bodybuilders take Clomid, but use different doses. There are no medical recommendations for taking this drug for those who are engaged in bodybuilding. But the dosage was established experimentally. Most bodybuilders take Clomiphene for two weeks at 50-100 mg per day. Some bodybuilders recommend increasing the dose to 100 mg per day.

Do not take Clomid for more than three weeks. This cycle was established by bodybuilders of the past. Since doctors do not recommend taking Clomid for bodybuilders, it is very difficult to get medical advice on taking this drug. In any case, if there are doubts about taking clomid, you can consult with specialists in the treatment of infertility: after all, they know the effect of This drug better than anyone.

It is not known exactly how long you can take Clomid. There is no data on long-term treatment with this drug. There is only a General recommendation not to take Clomid for long courses.

Clomid: Side effect

If you take Clomid for a short period of time and adhere to the specified doses, it is quite safe. Most adverse reactions caused by Clomid are temporary and disappear after discontinuation of its use.

The main side effects include:

  • flushes of blood to the face
  • abdominal discomfort
  • nausea, vomiting
  • chest pain
  • headaches
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • General fatigue
  • hair loss

Visual impairment

Since Clomid affects the brain, there is a danger of its serious side effects. By blocking estrogen-dependent receptors in the hypothalamus, Clomid thereby causes the hypothalamus to release stimulating factors or hormones that force the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins. The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland located on top of the optic nerves. With hyperstimulation of the pituitary gland, it increases in size.

pituitary gland and clomid

This leads to compression of the nerves of the eye. Many reports mention poor vision in those patients who have taken Clomid for a long time. There are various visual disturbances:

  • circles before the eyes
  • partial vision loss
  • image blurring or blurring
  • flashes

This usually occurs after a long period of use, although some patients have experienced such symptoms after 7 to 10 days of using the drug. Very often, such phenomena occurred suddenly, which is very dangerous for those who are driving a car or operating mechanisms. In most cases, these changes in vision disappeared after discontinuation of the drug. In case of such violations, you should immediately stop taking the medication and it is strongly recommended to contact an ophthalmologist.

Mood change

Another serious side effect is a change in mood. Many reports indicate that women who have taken Clomid for a long time develop a variety of behavioral problems. This can be a deep depression, irritability, anxiety or aggression. There were also cases of paranoia, anxiety, and insomnia.

Despite such unpleasant complications in some people, studies conducted in many clinics claim that this occurs in only 1% of women who have taken Clomid. There is no data on how many bodybuilders experience these side effects.

Determination of the drug level in the blood

Clomiphene can be easily purchased by anyone. However, all sports organizations prohibit its use in professional sports. The drug is easily detected in the urine for at least 5 to 12 days after its use. Tests for Clomiphene are very well developed, and some laboratories even measure the levels of testosterone and estrogens, their metabolites,and determine the percentage. With certain indicators, the use of Clomiphene is suspected.

Clomid for the treatment of female infertility

Clomid is a medication that is used in gynecological practice for the treatment of female infertility. It belongs to the group of antiestrogens. This means that it blocks the receptors (nerve endings) in the ovaries and hypothalamus, which leads to a decrease in the production of estrogens. Also, this drug stimulates the maturation of follicles, ovulation itself and the level of estradiol in the blood.

What are estrogens?

This is a group of steroid female sex hormones that are produced mainly in the ovaries. Men also have a small amount of estrogen in their blood, which is produced by the testicles and adrenal glands (in both sexes). Estrogens are divided into three types: estrone, estriol, and estradiol. Clomid particularly affects estradiol levels in the blood.

Functions of estrogens:

Feminization. This means that thanks to estrogens, a woman has a feminine appearance. In adolescence, these hormones are actively produced and form secondary sexual characteristics (Breasts, buttocks, abdomen, female hair growth, growth of internal and external genitals).

Reproduction. A group of estrogen hormones activates the production of mucus in the vagina, as well as its epithelization, which creates the necessary conditions for maintaining the viability of spermatozoa. Estrogens stimulate the maturation of the egg (follicle) and the onset of ovulation, in which the Mature egg is released from the ovary and it can be fertilized by a sperm. Further, after ovulation, in the event that fertilization occurred, estrogens are responsible for the preservation of the fetal egg, blood supply to the placenta and preparation of the expectant mother’s breast for lactation. If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm, these hormones activate the detachment of the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) and, as a result, menstruation begins.

Other effects of estrogens include the regulation of calcium levels, cholesterol in the blood, blood pressure, liver function, and mental activity.

How Clomid works

Clomid contains the main active substance – clomiphene, which blocks the receptors that perceive estrogens in the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls the hormonal background of the body). As a result, the production of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing) increases, which activate maturation and intra-secretory (endocrine) function of the follicle in the ovaries. As a result of all the processes described above, the use of the drug Clomid leads to the fact that the level of estradiol in the blood increases significantly.

Causes and symptoms of estrogen reduction

  • The main reason that the level of estrogens in the blood of a woman decreases is the lack of activity of the ovaries that produce them. As the body ages, there is also a shortage of them. An important reason may be various pathological changes on the part of the pituitary gland.
  • Sometimes there is a decrease in the level of estrogens in women who are engaged in professional sports, when the physical load on the body is excessive. This phenomenon occurs due to the fact that testosterone (the male hormone) is produced intensively.
  • Another important point is the presence or absence of adipose tissue. It is proved that estrogens are also produced by fat cells. This means that exhaustion or rapid weight loss is extremely dangerous for the female body, namely for its reproductive ability.

Symptoms that occur with estrogen deficiency

  • In adolescence, a lack of estrogens leads to insufficient development of secondary sexual characteristics, a decrease in the size of the uterus, late onset and failures in the menstrual cycle.
  • In the reproductive age, a decrease in the level of estrogens provokes a decrease in sexual desire, sharp mood swings, various violations of the duration and other indicators of the menstrual cycle. In parallel, memory decreases, performance, insomnia appears and the skin condition worsens (its elasticity, color, turgor). Stretch marks, pigmentation, and inflammatory rashes appear on the skin. Female infertility and dysfunctional uterine bleeding may occur.

Form of release of the drug Clomid

This medicine is produced in tablet form. Each tablet contains 25mg, 50mg, 100 milligrams of clomiphene. The drug Clomid is intended for oral administration, that is, through the mouth.

clomid for the treatment of female infertility

Indications for use of the drug Clomid

According to the instructions for use of the drug, it is prescribed for these conditions:

  • infertility caused by lack of ovulation;
  • galactorrhea is a spontaneous pathological outflow of milk from the breast, which is not associated with feeding a child and occurs as a result of pituitary tumors;
  • amenorrhea – absence of menstruation for a long period;
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia);
  • androgen insufficiency (hypogonadism) – insufficient production of steroid hormones by the sexual glands;
  • polycystic ovary;
  • oligospermia in men, a condition in which the quality and activity of spermatozoa decreases;
  • violation of the pituitary gland.

How to take Clomid

The scheme of application of the drug is different and depends on the pathology. As indicated in the instructions for use of the drug, to stimulate the ovulation process, Clomid is prescribed at a dose of 50 milligrams once a day, before bedtime. The course of taking the drug begins on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle and lasts five days. In situations where there is no menstruation at all, you can start taking the drug at any time prescribed by the doctor. If it is ineffective and there is no ovulation, the dose of Clomid can be increased to 150 milligrams per day, or the course of treatment can be extended to ten days. There is a special indication in the instructions, which says that the total course dose of the drug should not exceed 1 gram.

How to determine whether Clomid is effective

It is necessary to determine the presence of ovulation. To do this, there are several fairly simple methods that a woman can perform herself at home. This is a temperature method or basal temperature measurement, a method of ovulation tests. Additionally, the levels of hormones (luteinizing, progesterone, etc.) are determined.

In cases where the menstrual cycle has improved, but pregnancy does not occur, it is recommended to repeat the course of taking this drug in the same therapeutic dosage.

Contraindications to taking the drug Clomid

  • Renal or hepatic insufficiency, which is associated with the way the drug is excreted.
  • Neoplasm of the genitals.
  • Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology.
  • Inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus (endometriosis).
  • A tumor or an underactive pituitary gland.
  • Ovarian insufficiency on the background of increased prolactin levels in the blood.
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • Pregnancy.

Side effects of the drug Clomid

During the reception of Clomid, various manifestations from the internal organs may appear.

  • Allergic manifestations: vasomotor disorders, allergic dermatitis, rarely-rashes.
  • Manifestations from the nervous system: drowsiness, dizziness, headache, depression, insomnia, hyperexcitability, slowing down the speed of motor and mental reactions.
  • Possible manifestations of the genitourinary system: an increase in the size of the ovary, cystic ovarian changes, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, polyuria, increased urination, pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Other possible side reactions include:” flushes ” of blood to the face, alopecia (hair loss), chest pain (breast), decreased visual acuity, weight gain.

Special instructions concerning the drug Clomid

Taking this medication increases the likelihood of multiple pregnancies.

The development of effective action of the drug is possible only if the patient has a sufficient amount of their own estrogens. The lower their level, the less effective Clomid is.

Treatment with anti-estrogenic drugs, as well as any other, should take place under the careful supervision of a gynecologist. Periodically, the ovarian function is determined and other special examinations, including vaginal ones, are performed.

During the course of therapeutic treatment with Clomid, it is recommended to take special care when working with mechanisms that carry a potential danger, and when driving a car.