Ovulation – what is it in simple words

Ovulation is a cyclical physiological process in which a Mature egg is released from the ovary. During this period, the highest probability of fertilization of the egg, so determining the fact of ovulation is very important for women who want to get pregnant.

What happens when you ovulate

During ovulation, the physiological process of leaving a Mature egg from the ovary with its subsequent entry into the fallopian tube, where fertilization can occur. The process is cyclical in nature, the release of the egg occurs every month on about 14 days from the beginning of the menstrual cycle (a possible slight deviation in the timing of ovulation is considered normal).

Directly the exit of the egg from the ovary takes a period of time about an hour. Then it moves into the uterine tube (movement occurs due to the movement of the villi of the fallopian tube mucosa). In the fallopian tube funnel, an egg can be fertilized by a sperm within 24 hours. If this does not happen, then it dies.

The entire period of time when there is the highest probability of ovulation is called the ovulatory period. It is the most favorable for the conception of a child. The reliable duration of the ovulatory period remains unexplored, usually a favorable period for getting pregnant is 1 day before and after ovulation.

How ovulation is regulated

Ovulation is a complex physiological process that is regulated by certain hormones. The pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone, which increases the rate of egg maturation and follicle formation (the vesicle before ovulation can reach 2 cm in diameter).

During the maturation of the follicle, estrogens are released. They affect the hypothalamus, pituitary (structures of the Central nervous system), stimulating the production of luteinizing hormone, responsible for maturing the egg. The increase in the concentration of the hormone in the blood begins 36-48 hours before ovulation and has a peak character.

After the exit of the germ cell, a yellow body is formed in place of the damaged vesicle (the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle). Knowledge of the regulation of the ovulation process is necessary to find out the causes and mechanism of various changes in which female infertility can develop.

Why to determine ovulation

The fertilization process occurs only when a Mature egg is released and moved into the fallopian tube. After unprotected sexual intercourse, spermatozoa usually move to the fallopian tube within 24 hours (the lifetime of a Mature egg that has left the ovary) and fertilize the egg.


The ovulatory period is the most favorable for fertilization of an egg and conception of a child, so at the stage of pregnancy planning, a woman finds out the time of ovulation. If ovulation was detected when using the test system, it is recommended to carry out conception within a day after the test.

How to determine ovulation

The entire ovulatory period and the process of direct release of the egg from the ovary does not manifest itself clinically. The General condition and well-being of the woman does not change. Therefore, in order to reliably determine ovulation, you can use several common methods:

Calculation of ovulation.

The calculation of the possible day of ovulation during a regular menstrual cycle. The first day of the cycle is considered the beginning of menstruation. With a known and equal number of all days (on average, the cycle lasts about 28 days) of the menstrual cycle, its middle (day 14) will coincide with the beginning of ovulation. For the convenience of counting, you can use a special calendar of the menstrual cycle.

Determination of ovulation by body temperature.

Measurement of a woman’s body temperature, which is better performed in the rectum (it is possible to get more reliable measurement results). During ovulation, due to the peak production of luteinizing hormone, there is a small (on average, half a degree) rise in temperature. For convenience, it is recommended to measure throughout the entire menstrual cycle and make a schedule.

The ovulation test.

Using a special ovulation test is a modern technique that is based on determining the appearance of luteinizing hormone in a woman’s body fluids (urine, saliva). The diagnostic system can be represented by test strips. They are dipped in a vessel with collected urine, and then the result is recorded. The presence of 2 strips (experimental and control lines) indicates the presence of luteinizing hormone in the blood and determines ovulation.

Thanks to the availability of modern test systems for ovulation, its determination has become much easier.

What determines the time of ovulation

In the normal functional state of the endocrine and reproductive systems, ovulation occurs approximately on the same day of the menstrual cycle. Changes in the timing of the release of a Mature egg from their ovary are recorded in 20% of cases and may be the result of various provoking factors:

  • Endocrine pathology that affects the pituitary, adrenal, or sex glands.
  • Infections of the reproductive system, which also include sexually transmitted diseases (mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia).
  • Chronic pathological conditions of the internal genitals, which include polycystic ovaries, endometriosis.
  • Metabolic disorders (metabolism) with the development of obesity.
  • Suffered excessive physical, mental, emotional stress.
  • Genetic predisposition, inherited (syndrome of early ovarian depletion, which develops before the age of 40 years).
  • Age-related physiological decline in the functional activity of the reproductive system.

Diagnosis of the causes of ovulation disorders is necessary for effective treatment of various changes in the functional state of the reproductive system that lead to female infertility.

Why is there no ovulation?

So, now you know what ovulation is, in simple words, it is the release of an egg from the ovary, which can be fertilized by a sperm. Due to ovulation, pregnancy occurs. If this process is disrupted, the woman can not conceive a child. Try to buy clomid online and use it, in most cases it helps to conceive a child.

Some women do not ovulate. Why is this happening? Consider all possible reasons why eggs may not Mature in the ovaries. They can be physiological and pathological.

Physiological cause

  • early age, before puberty – girls may not ovulate even up to 15-16 years, although these processes usually begin after 13-14 years;
  • late age – over the years, ovulation occurs less and less, after 50 years, the egg in many women no longer Matures at all;
  • pregnancy – during the period of carrying a child, it is impossible to conceive another one;
  • lactation – during this process, the hormone prolactin is produced, which blocks the production of FSH (this hormone stimulates the maturation of follicles in the ovaries, so if it is not produced in the pituitary gland, ovulation does not occur).

Often there is no female ovulation, because there are some disorders in the body. In the vast majority of cases, the endocrine factor is to blame. That is, ovulation does not occur because certain hormones are too much or too little. As soon as their number becomes normal, ovulatory processes will again occur in the ovaries every month.

Pathological causes

  • damage to the ovaries as a result of trauma, surgery, radiation, tumors, etc.;
  • surgical removal of the ovaries;
  • their underdevelopment (congenital anomalies);
  • premature ovarian depletion syndrome (early menopause).

Note that if ovulation is absent, it does not mean that it will never happen. In women with endocrine disorders, it can occur, it just happens less often. It is more difficult to catch the moment for fertilizing sexual intercourse to conceive a child. In healthy women, eggs Mature 10-12 times a year. In endocrine diseases, this can occur only 2-3 times a year. The majority of cycles remain anovulatory. In addition, the duration of a single menstrual cycle can sometimes reach several months due to an increase in the duration of the follicular phase. That is, the period during which the ovary grows a follicle with an egg.

Clomid in bodybuilding

Taking steroids helps you gain muscle mass quickly. However, you have to pay for everything: after the end of the course, athletes have to make a huge effort to restore their body. A particularly acute problem is a decrease in the intensity of testosterone production. In this case, so-called antiestrogens come to the rescue, the most effective of which is clomid.

Why do I need to take antiestrogens?

Antiestrogens are widely used by athletes who use androgen-anabolic steroids to increase the effectiveness of training. It is difficult to overestimate the benefits of antiestrogens, because after a course of steroids, the endocrine glands reduce the production of testosterone. This happens for a simple reason: if the hormone enters the body from the outside, the need for its production disappears. As a result, the pituitary-hypothalamus-ovarian arc becomes less and less active. And the longer an athlete takes steroids, the less testosterone is produced. It is important that the rate of decrease in the activity of your own glands depends on the intake of prolactin, estradiol and progesterone. If the level of one of these hormones exceeds a certain value, the activity of the endocrine glands will be suppressed even more. Therefore, it is important to monitor the level of hormones, pass tests on time and always have at your disposal extradiol and prolactin inhibitors.

Clomid in bodybuilding

The less active the pituitary-hypothalamus-ovary arc becomes, the more effort will have to be spent to “Wake it up”. Naturally, you need to get your testosterone levels back to normal as quickly as possible: this affects not only your appearance, but also the effectiveness of training. In order for testosterone levels to return to normal as soon as possible, it is recommended to take antiestrogens: clomiphene citrate, tamoxifen citrate and torimifene citrate. Unfortunately, recovery with tamoxifen is best abandoned: it is considered the dirtiest and you can expect quite unpredictable side effects from taking it. The most effective drug that many athletes recommend is clomiphene citrate, otherwise called clomid. Of course, it is quite expensive, but the quality and result fully justify the high cost.

How does clomid work?

Many athletes after a course of taking steroids try to restore the level of testosterone, using dietary supplements, herbal infusions and other questionable means. This should not be done: after the course, the body is in a hormonal pit, when the level of follicle-stimulating and luteinizing hormones is almost zero. And it is from these hormones depends on the intensity of testosterone secretion.

Clomid affects the production of FSH and LH. In addition, it connects to estrogen receptors. Therefore, even if a high level of estrogen is detected in the athlete’s blood, you should not be afraid: the hormone will be in an inactive form.

In the first days of taking clomid, LH and FSH levels quickly peak, while testosterone levels increase. In just a couple of weeks, the testosterone level returns to the state that was observed before the course of steroids. However, the duration of taking the drug depends on the individual characteristics of the athlete’s body: someone needs two weeks, someone needs several months.

How to take clomid on PCT after the course

The dosage of clomid depends on the course of steroids taken. The more drugs were taken and the higher their dosages, the longer it will take to bring the body back to normal. In General, the reception scheme looks like this:

  • after a very hard course – 3×150, 12×100, 15×50, 15×25;
  • after a hard course – 15×100, 15×50, 15×25;
  • after the middle of the course – 30×50, 15×25;
  • after a light course – 15×50, 15×25, 15×25 (once every 2 days)
  • after a very easy course – 15×50, 15×25.

The first digit represents the number of days during which the drug should be taken. The second digit is the recommended dosage of the drug. For example, 15×100/15×50 will indicate that clomid should be taken for 15 days at 100 mg, and then for another 15 days at 50 mg.

Reviews of the drug

There are almost no negative reviews about the drug on the Internet. This does not seem surprising: clomid has no side effects, at least if taken in accordance with the instructions and recommendations of specialists. Clomid makes it possible to quickly restore testosterone levels after a course of steroids, and also contributes to minimal loss of muscle mass.

Ovulation stimulation in women after 40 years

Some couples decide to have a second child many years after the birth of their first child. Often, doctors resort to ovulation stimulation after 40 years, because the supply of eggs can be used up. As a result, after stimulation in the form of hormonal drugs, ovulation returns, so there are chances of conception. This method in medicine is effective, thanks to it, many women become mothers after 40-45 years.

What is the stimulation of ovulation

The absence of an egg from the follicle, according to research, is considered a common pathology in gynecological practice. Most often, it is associated with hormonal imbalance, incorrect body weight and other diseases of the internal genitals.

To Wake up the sleeping ovaries, you need to trigger the ovulatory process. This is often done with hormonal medications. Their action in the body contributes to the development of the follicular capsule and the release of EGGS capable of fertilization. In addition, the menstrual cycle is restored.

Ovulation stimulation in women after 40 years

Often, medications are used that have different effects on the woman’s body. It is worth remembering that the appropriate method is suitable only for those ladies whose appendages are completely healthy. We are talking about cases when the follicles do not break, and they need help.

Features of stimulation after 40 years

For women of this age, a personal treatment regimen is developed if they cannot get pregnant in the usual way. Some patients refuse this method, because they are afraid of the birth of twins, as well as the influence of other side effects. However, a number of ladies still agree to the doctor’s proposal, since the eggs are not able to perform their main function.

To restore ovulation, you have to resort to IVF. This method is also suggested because the reproductive age has already ended. In this regard, it is necessary to use the help of donors and the spouse’s sperm, if it is of high quality.

For all these processes to be carried out successfully, women need to find a competent specialist in this matter. After a comprehensive examination, he will select the right hormonal agents that will not cause damage to the body.

It is not superfluous to use folk remedies as an auxiliary therapy to the standard stimulation Protocol. Herbs will help restore fertility, the main thing is to consult your doctor before using them.

Preparation and contraindications

Before ovulation is stimulated, each expectant mother must undergo a detailed examination. Evaluating the results of tests, the doctor will exclude all pathologies that may negatively affect the success of this method. In particular, it is necessary to:

  • pass tests to detect infections in the genital tract;
  • smear from the vagina;
  • donate blood for various hormones;
  • conduct a cytological examination;
  • ultrasound of the mammary glands;
  • ECG;
  • find out whether the fallopian tubes are passable;
  • get the results of the analysis for TORCH infections;
  • if necessary, do a laparoscopy.

A spermogram will be required from the partner. If the male factor of infertility is absent, then you can start treatment for a woman.

However, the Protocol does not apply to all patients. It can not be performed for the following pathologies:

  • genetic abnormalities of a chromosomal nature;
  • obstruction of both tubes;
  • hereditary diseases;
  • somatic abnormalities;
  • dysfunction of the kidneys, heart or liver.
  • inflammatory processes of the reproductive system; polycystic ovaries.

Performing stimulation after 40 years

The main component of the prescribed drugs can have different effects on the body as a whole. Most often, medications begin to be taken from the third day of the menstrual cycle. Often, intramuscular injections are prescribed to enhance the action. The action can be either gonadotropic or antiestrogenic. All this is determined by the primary clinical picture. Diagnosis of follicle formation is performed by ultrasound.

After analysis of the dominant follicular capsule, a HCG injection is administered. If all the activities were carried out for IVF, then the YC fence can be performed every other day. In the case of the natural way, couples need to have unprotected sex.

As a rule, no more than two cycles of hormone use are sufficient. If the desired effect on the reproductive system is not found, doctors change the treatment regimen. Sometimes there are cases when conception occurs from the first time.


Ovulation stimulation after 40 years is possible only if a woman is in good health. This conclusion is based on the survey conducted. Stimulation of ovulation is performed with the help of injections and pills that normalize hormonal balance. After 40 years, you should seriously think about whether to give birth, because there are certain health risks.

Why is it not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation?

When a couple starts planning to conceive a baby, the first few unsuccessful attempts can cause a lot of questions — why pregnancy does not occur, because partners try to conduct sexual acts during this, the most favorable fertile female period. In fact, this is a normal situation, the reasons for which may be quite natural. But also pathological prerequisites are not excluded.

General information

Ovulation is a short period of the female menstrual cycle when a Mature egg comes out of the dominant follicle into the fallopian tube. A set of germ cells in an immature state in girls is available even when the baby is in the womb. Then, during life, part of the first — order oocytes die, and part is spent on ensuring the cyclical work of the female body. Each month, one (rarely more) follicles ripen, which break in the middle of the cycle under the influence of hormones, releasing an oocyte ready for fertilization by a sperm.

Ovulation lasts about an hour, and then for another day the egg retains the ability to be fertilized.

If during these days the meeting with the male sex cell does not occur, the oocyte dies, descends into the uterus and comes out with menstrual bleeding along with endometrial particles that have grown under the influence of progesterone in the second phase of the female cycle in anticipation of a fertilized egg.

Female fertility (the ability to reproduce) is largely due to the ovulatory process, and the probability of conceiving a child on the days of ovulation is maximum. But the maximum is not 100%. According to who, female fertility during ovulation depends on age, its highest value is no more than 33% in women under 25 years of age, no more than 25% in women under 30 years of age. Reproductologists say that these figures are somewhat inflated, and the real probability of conceiving a child for the first time in one cycle in healthy women and men does not exceed 11% at the age of 20-25 years. Naturally, after 35 years, the probability does not exceed 4-7%, and after 40 years — 3%.

This is due to the deterioration of the genetic material of the female germ cells, and if the partner is age-related, then his germ cells are probably not of excellent quality. These statistics are not a cause for concern. About 60% of married couples get pregnant safely within six months, and another 30% of couples see positive pregnancy test results within a year.

In about 25% of cases, even if sexual intercourse was performed exactly during the fertile window, conception does not occur, and the reasons for this have not yet been established by geneticists and doctors. In addition, in almost half of cases of family infertility, poor sperm quality plays a decisive role.

why it is not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation

Conditions for successful conception

To find the answer to the question of why a woman can not get pregnant during ovulation with the first or second baby, you need to make sure that the couple correctly approaches planning and meets all the conditions for successful conception.

A woman is ovulating

The fact is that every lady in the course of life there are “empty” anovulatory cycles. The older a woman gets, the greater the number of such cycles per year (compare — in 20 years, anovulatory cycles are usually 1-2 per year, and in 35 years — up to 5-6). Ovulation can also occur late or earlier, and this scenario can be triggered by stress, a cold, a trip, or a flight.

In order to answer the question of whether the egg is released at all, you can use home ovulation tests: when they show two stripes, it’s time to start active actions.

The accuracy of home tests is lower than laboratory tests, and you can visit a doctor to do an ovarian ultrasound on day 5-6 of the cycle immediately after your period. And closer to the middle of the cycle, you can do a blood test for luteinizing hormone. Its sharp jump indicates the approach of ovulation.

The man is healthy and capable of conception

A simple analysis — spermogram will help significantly reduce the time and nervous costs when planning a baby. If the quality of a man’s germ cells leaves much to be desired, the probability of fertilization is significantly reduced, and the risk of conceiving a child with genetic abnormalities or chromosomal errors increases.

In this case, you first need to improve the quality of sperm by taking vitamins, giving up bad habits, visiting the bath and sauna. And only after three months (this is how long spermatogenesis lasts) to start the exciting process of “catching” ovulation.

Sexual acts occur during the fertile window

Spermatozoa live longer than the egg (up to 3-4 days), they are quite capable of “waiting” for the egg to come out already in the fallopian tube, and therefore it is recommended to start having sex 3-4 days before ovulation and do it a day later up to 2-3 days after ovulation, refusing to use contraception, douching, and lubricants.

With moderate frequency of sexual contact, a man’s sperm will be of optimal quality, which will help to conceive a baby faster.

The couple is in the right psychological state

Any stress increases the production of stress hormones, which partially block the production of sex hormones. That is why it is often impossible to get pregnant, even if the sperm is of normal quality and ovulation is present. Doctors have long noticed that conception occurs most quickly in the first year of a couple’s life together, while the feelings are fresh. If you turn sexual acts into a sports attraction with the sole purpose of conceiving, the probability of successful conception decreases.

A woman who every month with trepidation waits for two stripes on the test, can not be distracted by anything else, switch, is in a state of chronic stress, and the probability of conception itself becomes several orders of magnitude lower.

why it is not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation

Possible reasons for the lack of conception

A variety of factors can affect the ability of male and female cells to merge, and not all of them have been studied in detail by doctors and scientists. But even those that are known are quite enough to understand that conception is a delicate matter.

It’s mostly about the health of the partners. A woman’s probability of conception is reduced not only by age, but also by bad habits, living in an area with unfavorable environmental factors, working at night, professional contact with radiation, paints and varnishes, and toxins. And even if there is ovulation, it is not a fact that the oocyte will be of good quality and fertilization will be successful.

The male fertility factor can be affected by the habit of wearing tight underwear and trousers, which disrupt blood circulation in the scrotum and increase its temperature. The habit of steaming in the bath, turning on car seat heating also affects the quality of sperm.

We can’t even imagine how many conceptions we’ve missed in our lives! After all, sometimes pregnancy “breaks down” at the very initial stage — the fetal egg cannot descend into the uterus, implantation does not occur, because of a genetic error, it stops developing and growing and dies. In this case, your monthly period may arrive a little late. And a woman will never know that conception did take place.

The reason for the absence of pregnancy with strict adherence to the rules of successful conception can be any gynecological pathology — obstruction of the fallopian tubes, inflammation in the uterus, ovarian dysfunction. Often, doctors also diagnose hormonal infertility, in which the level of hormones in the female body does not allow her to be pregnant (progesterone or estrogen deficiency). Often, ovulation does not occur, and if it does, the level of natural hormonal support may not be sufficient to ensure the survival of the embryo in the very first days after conception.

In men, the cause may be hidden in varicocele, prostatitis, and sexual infections, many of which occur without pronounced symptoms, and therefore can not be immediately noticed by the carrier.

We should also talk about antisperm antibodies that produce the immune system of a man or woman. The immune defense simply perceives spermatozoa as foreign objects, and throws all its forces at their speedy destruction. In this case, sperm die in the body of a man, if he has antisperm antibodies, or die before reaching the egg, if such immune cells are produced in a woman.

The immune system can react to sperm this way for some reasons. For example, a man underwent surgery on the genitals, there was an injury, a bruise of the genitals, and individual germ cells, getting not where they should be, caused an aggressive immune response. In women, this form of infertility develops due to excessive passion for anal sex with ejaculation in the rectum, as well as when swallowing sperm during oral contact. This is one of the most difficult types of infertility to treat.

What to do?

Whatever your ideas about your own fertility, it’s best to start planning a pregnancy by going to the doctor. A woman needs to be examined by a gynecologist, put her own weight in order (even losing 5% of the original body weight increases the likelihood of conception). It is also important for a man to pay attention to his diet, bad habits and make a spermogram.

A simple and quick survey will allow the couple to plan more constructively for adding to the family, to know exactly the “weak” sides of each other. Let’s just say that there are almost no insurmountable situations. Even if some abnormalities are detected, in 96% of cases, after correctly selected treatment, the problem is eliminated, and the couple can begin to successfully plan the baby.

The remaining 3% of couples will be helped by methods of assisted reproductive medicine — IVF, ICSI, egg donation, sperm donation.

A trip to a psychotherapist is inevitable in psychogenic infertility, when the cause lies in severe stress, emotions, and fears. After eliminating these feelings, the couple usually manages to conceive a baby without any problems.

Clomid (clomiphene) or nolvadex (tamoxifen), which is better?

In this article, we will try to resolve doubts about the choice between two drugs, as well as find differences: clomid or nolvadex.

Clomiphene citrate (available in pharmacies under the brand name Clomid) and tamoxifen (trade name Nolvadex) are antiestrogens belonging to the same group of triphenylethylenes. They are structurally similar and classified as selective estrogen receptor modulators with mixed agonistic and antagonistic properties. This means that in certain tissues they block the action of estrogen by binding to receptors, while in other tissues they can act like real estrogen by activating receptors. In men, both drugs act as antiestrogens in their ability to interfere with the negative feedback of estrogens to the hypothalamus and stimulate increased production of GnRH (gonadoliberin). As a result, the production of the luteinizing hormone prolactin and the follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland will be increased, which in turn can increase the production of testosterone by the testicles. Both drugs do this, but for some reason, bodybuilders continue to think that only clomid is good for stimulating testosterone.

bodybuilders: clomid or nolvadex?

Research conducted in the late 70s at the University of Ghent in Belgium clarifies the benefits of nolvadex over clomid in increasing testosterone levels. The researchers looked at the effect of nolvadex and clomid on the endocrine system of healthy men, as well as those who suffered from a small number of sperm (oligospermia). It was also found that Nolvadex, when used for 10 days at a dosage of 20 mg per day, increased serum testosterone levels by 142% from the initial level, which was comparable to the effect of 150 mg of clomid per day over the same time period (the increase in testosterone levels was slightly, but not significantly, more with clomid). We must remember that this is the effect of three 50mg clomid tablets. With approximately the same price of 50mg of clomid and 20mg of nolvadex, we already see a difference in the price / result ratio in favor of nolvadex.

Differences between clomid and nolvadex

Clomid acts on estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland and ovaries. By binding estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland, clomid breaks the negative feedback mechanism, i.e. if usually estrogens, acting on the pituitary gland, reduce the production of FSH and LH, this does not happen when taking clomid. Clomid does not directly affect the level of estrogens in the blood.

Nolvadex also does not affect the level of estrogens in the blood, because its mechanism of action is also reduced to the blockade of estrogen receptors, including in the pituitary gland. However, clomid is a more selective (selective) blocker, while nolvadex is less selective. While clomid binds to estrogen receptors primarily in the pituitary gland and testicles, nolvadex binds to them almost throughout the body. The exception is bone tissue, where clomid and tamoxifen, on the contrary, activate estrogen receptors.

Thus, clomid acts as an antagonist of estrogens and eliminates their depressing effect on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, contributing to a faster recovery of their function. Nolvadex blocks receptors in almost all tissues, and also helps the body begin to restore its own testosterone. It is important to note that nolvadex is able to block estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland to a lesser extent than clomid.

Clomiphene and tamoxifen do not affect the metabolism of estrogenic hormones, so against the background of taking these drugs, estrogens continue to be destroyed by liver enzymes, and do not accumulate in the body.

Tamoxifen has disadvantages: it is quite toxic (sometimes it is manifested by loss of appetite and nausea, and the risk of thrombosis increases). Tamoxifen increases the number of progesterone receptors, so it can not be used if the course is based on progestin drugs (nandrolone, trenbolone). In this case, you should use clomiphene.

Clomid: common fault

  • Both drugs inhibit the production of insulin-like growth factor-1
  • Directly inhibit the function of the testicles
  • Increase sex hormone binding globulin
  • Increase the concentration of estrogens several times
  • Cause visual impairment with prolonged use
  • In some cases, when using Clomid for a month at a dosage of 25 mg per day, after 2 weeks after the end of the course, there was a decrease in total testosterone by 16-17% (while there was a decrease in estradiol by 13.5%)
  • It is important to understand that in some people, the pituitary-hypothalamus-testicular arch (GGT) may not respond to stimulation with Clomid (clomiphene) or nolvadex (tamoxifen)

It is most rational to use aromatase inhibitors during the course, among which Proviron is especially popular, since this drug does not negatively affect the secretion of growth hormone and increases the concentration of anabolic hormones in the blood by suppressing aromatization. In the last week of the course and 2 weeks after, Tamoxifen should be used as the main component of PCT in the absence of Proviron, the start of Nolvadex administration falls on the 2nd week of the steroid cycle, and ends 2-3 weeks after the end of the cycle, the average dose is 10-20 mg per day. I would like to pay special attention to the common misconception that antiestrogens are recommended to drink after a cycle. The level of estrogens increases at the end of the first week of the cycle, so it is from this moment that you need to start taking!

Clomid: instructions for use of tablets

Clomid is a non-steroidal medicinal product belonging to the group of antiestrogens. It has a dose-dependent effect on the pituitary gland, which is responsible for the production of sex hormones. The drug is used not only in reproductive medicine, but also in sports and bodybuilding to restore the body’s ability to produce its own hormones.

Clomid: Indications for use

Clomid was developed for:

  • Stimulation of ovulation in women suffering from anovulatory cycle
  • Elimination of amenorrhea caused by insufficient gonadotropin production
  • Treatment of androgen deficiency in men and oligospermia
  • Diagnostics of the causes of violation of the gonadotropic function of the brain (pituitary).

In addition, Clomid is actively used in bodybuilding and sports to normalize the body’s work on the production of endogenous hormones after a course of steroids. This application is not provided by the manufacturers of the drug, but is the result of personal experience of men engaged in body building. Therefore, few doctors will be able to advise and prescribe a remedy for this purpose.

Medical property

The active component of Clomid is clomiphene citrate, which belongs to the group of antiestrogenic agents. Use in small doses leads to increased production of gonadotropins: prolactin and hormones with follicle-stimulating and luteinizing effects, which contributes to ovulation.

Use of clomid in bodybuilding

If the body’s estrogen content is low, Clomid has a moderate estrogenic effect, and in the case of a high content – antiestrogenic. Taking large doses activates the production of gonadotropins.

Method of application

The dosage of clomid tablets depends on the purpose of the drug. Clomid regimen for infertility problems:

  • To stimulate ovulation, the instructions for use recommend that women take 50 mg daily (before bedtime). Therapy begins on the 5th day of the monthly cycle. The course is 5 days. If there is no effect, repeat the drug administration (up to 3-6 courses), increasing the dosage to 150 mg or extending the duration of therapy, bringing the course to 10 days. At the same time, it is important not to exceed the total dose for the entire cycle of administration-1 g of the active substance.
  • Infertility in men. Representatives of the stronger sex, experiencing problems with spermatogenesis, it is recommended to take 1-2 times a day for 50 mg. During the course for men, it is mandatory to check the spermogram.

How to take Clomid on PCT

The scheme of recovery with Clomid after a course of steroids depends on its duration and the number of stimulants taken. The higher the dosage of steroids and the longer the cycle lasted, the longer it will take to return the body’s functions to normal.

  • After the ultralight course: 15 days of 50 mg, then the next 15 days of 25 mg
  • After a light course: 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg, 15 times (1 time in 2 days) 25 mg
  • After moderate intake: 30 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg
  • After intensive administration: 15 days. X 100 mg, 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg
  • After overdose: 3 days. X 150 mg, 12 days. X 100 mg, 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg.

To restore the production of their own testosterone, other drugs are also used-antiestrogens. What works best depends on many factors. Basically, several pairs of drugs are compared:

  • Clomid or Tamoxifen? The competing drugs are similar in structure, but the latter drug is stronger. Therefore, it takes less to restore testosterone. However, it is considered that the described remedy is the best choice for PCT after taking progestins.
  • Proviron or Clomid? Both medications have an anti-estrogenic effect, but each of them in its own way. The difference is as follows: Clomid stimulates tissues to release hormones, which increases the level of endogenous testosterone, and Proviron suppresses the enzymes responsible for the transformation of steroid hormones into estrogens. Due to this, the process slows down, which leads to the accumulation of testosterone in the plasma. But the effect is temporary, so after some time, the level of the male hormone will fall again.

Should I drink Clomid on a course of steroids

While taking anabolics, the level of androgens is extremely high, and therefore the body does not need to synthesize its own substances. The hypothalamus stops giving commands to the pituitary gland to produce hormones. As long as the concentration in the body of substances received from outside is maximum, Clomid will not be able to stimulate the body. The drug can only be taken during a steroid cycle as an anti-estrogenic agent.

The drug is prohibited for pregnant and nursing mothers. Women of reproductive age should make sure that there is no pregnancy if Clomid is prescribed.

Clomid precautionary measures

The use of the drug should only take place under the constant supervision of specialists.

The drug stimulates superovulation, which creates favorable conditions for the development of multiple pregnancies.

If ovulation is assumed to have taken place after the reception, but menstruation has not occurred, you should check the woman for pregnancy. Repeated administration of tablets can be carried out only after confirmation of the absence of conception.

Pills can cause decreased mindfulness, drowsiness, and slow reactions. At the time of admission, you should refrain from potentially dangerous activities: driving vehicles or operating complex mechanisms.

Like any medicine, Clomid should not be taken with alcohol, so as not to reduce its effect.

Ovulation stimulation: from indications to prescription.

Long ago in the past, there were times when problems with ovulation in a woman meant only one thing for a married couple — infertility. Medicine has learned to successfully solve this problem, and in many cases, treatment ends with conception and the birth of a healthy child. In this case, ovulation stimulation is performed with drugs that are individually selected for each patient in accordance with her physiological characteristics. We will tell you in which cases the doctor can prescribe ovulation stimulation, what should precede it, what is the scheme of the procedure and its effectiveness.

Why do we need the stimulation of ovulation

Ovulation stimulation is prescribed only if there are direct indications for it, since if the woman’s reproductive system is in order, then she herself produces viable eggs.

Ovulation in a healthy woman of childbearing age is the process of releasing a fully Mature and ready-to-fertilize egg from the follicle. Exit is preceded by a long preparation. Once a month, several eggs sleeping in the ovary are awakened by hormones and begin to increase in size. After about ten days, the dominant follicle is released from them, the size of which can reach 18-20 mm. When the egg is fully Mature, the follicle shell is torn. The egg goes into the abdominal cavity, and then enters the fallopian tube. There, within 24 hours, she waits for fertilization. If it does not happen for some reason, the egg dies and the whole process is repeated in a month. Usually one egg is involved in ovulation, but sometimes there are two or three. In this case, twins are born. If the embryo divides itself into 2 parts after fertilization (that is, initially these 2 parts were formed from one egg and one sperm), then twins are born.

ovulation stimulation

In some women who are ready to become mothers both physically and mentally, pregnancy does not occur because her ovaries do not form a Mature egg. If conception does not occur for 6 consecutive cycles, ovulation stimulation may be prescribed. It has a single goal — to help the body form a full-fledged egg, capable of fertilization, and push it to exit the follicle. The essence of the method is to target the ovaries with certain medications in order to increase the release of hormones necessary for ovulation.

Ovulation stimulation for conception, the doctor prescribes only if there are:

  • Anovulatory infertility (hormonal dysfunction that is incurable in another way; polycystic ovary; a woman’s high or low body mass index;)
  • Preparation for artificial insemination by IVF.
  • Infertility of unknown origin.

Preliminary study

Before starting the ovulation stimulation procedure, the doctor necessarily prescribes a number of studies, both laboratory and instrumental. Their purpose is to identify possible contraindications:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs and ovaries;
  • violations of the patency of the fallopian tubes.

A relative contraindication is the age of a woman over 40 years, because in this case, the risk of giving birth to a sick child increases.

So, instrumental research includes:

  • Examination of the therapist to identify common diseases in which pregnancy is contraindicated.
  • ECG.
  • Ultrasound of the pelvis and mammary glands.
  • Examination of the patency of the fallopian tubes by laparoscopy or radiography with contrast material.
  • Folliculometry.
  • Fluorography.
  • Types of laboratory tests:

Clinical blood test.

  • Blood tests for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C.
  • The General analysis of urine.
  • PCR – examination of smears from the vagina and cervical canal.
  • Examination of smears from the vagina, cervical canal and urethra for atypical cells and the degree of purity.
  • Infectious examination (for chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc.).
  • Determination of the blood level of female sex hormones, thyroid hormones, prolactin and testosterone (performed repeatedly).

After a full examination and obtaining a medical opinion on the absence of diseases that can prevent conception or provoke the birth of a sick child, it is necessary to assess the ovarian reserve of a woman. Using this procedure, is defined by:

  • the chance to receive in the process of stimulating ovulation of a positive result;
  • intensity of stimulation;
  • optimal scheme;
  • the most effective drugs and their individual dose.

To assess the ovarian reserve, a woman gives blood for analysis after taking hormonal drugs. Based on the obtained indicators, a conclusion is made about the prospect of artificial ovulation stimulation.

The choice of the scheme of hyperovulation

Ovulation stimulation is performed according to one of the regulated schemes, which describes in detail the method, dose and duration of administration of the drug. The doctor selects the scheme taking into account:

  • result of ovarian reserve assessment;
  • female body mass;
  • the results of the previous stimulation procedures (if any).

All drugs used for stimulation are hormonal, but differ from each other in the type of hormone they are based on — follicle-stimulating or luteinizing (necessary to support the development of the egg). There are four groups of tools for ovulation stimulation.

  • Preparations based on HMG (human menopausal gonadotropin), containing follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones in the same proportion. This includes, for example, “Menopur”.
  • Drugs based on FSH, whose principle of action is close to the natural hormone — “Gonal”, “Puregon”.
  • Drugs that are based on the suppression of estrogen and increase the level of FSH to the required norm — “Clostylbegit”, “Clomid“, “Clomifen”.
  • Hormonal agents that stimulate the rupture of the follicle shell and the timely release of the egg – “Prophase”, “Horagon”, “Pregnil”, “Ovitrel”.

Usually, a combination of drugs is used in the schemes.

Ovulation stimulation is recommended to be performed no more than 6 times, since it can lead to depletion of the ovaries. If the desired pregnancy does not occur as a result of stimulation, it is necessary to choose other methods of treatment.

Despite the fact that ovulation stimulation is a well-established method of treating infertility, it should be remembered that it also has its own limits of application, indications and contraindications, and side effects. In addition, even if it did not lead to the long-awaited result, it is important to know: modern Reproductology is not limited to this method.

Clomid is one of the best antiestrogens in bodybuilding

Application of Clomid in bodybuilding

Both Amateurs and professional athletes often use Clomid. Similarly, athletes often use a variety of other chemicals, such as anabolic steroids, HCG, tamoxifen, thyroid hormones, etc. Unlike other anabolic steroids or hormones, Clomid does not reduce testosterone levels. On the contrary, causing a surge of LH, the drug increases the level of testosterone.

Almost all anabolic steroids have both androgenic and anabolic properties. In some cases, anabolic steroids contribute to the formation of estrogens. With the help of an enzyme, aromatases are also converted into the female sex hormone, estrogen. Estrogen contributes to the development of gynecomastia in bodybuilders.

Although bodybuilders like to show off their bodies, it is unlikely that any of them will want to flaunt their effeminate Breasts. Therefore, Clomid is used to block the development of gynecomastia. By blocking estrogen receptors, it prevents the development of gynecomastia caused by anabolic steroids.

When Clomid blocks estrogen receptors in the brain, the hypothalamus causes a surge of LH and FSH – releasing hormones, which leads to an increase in sex hormone synthesis. LH and FSH also affect the testicles, causing further testosterone synthesis. Testosterone gives the athlete an extra boost. Some bodybuilders take Clomid only to get an anabolic effect. Others use it in combination with other steroids and growth hormone.

Clomid dosage for bodybuilders

Clomid is taken only once a day. Experts in the field of bodybuilding advise taking it alone or in combination with low-activity anabolic steroids. Most bodybuilders take anabolic steroids for a few months and then switch to Clomid. The tool provides a surge of testosterone.

The exact time when you should start taking the drug is unknown. But there is a recommendation to start taking Clomid on the 7-10 day after the end of taking steroid medications.

How do experienced athletes take Clomid

Many athletes and bodybuilders take Clomid, but use different doses. There are no medical recommendations for taking this drug for those who are engaged in bodybuilding. But the dosage was established experimentally. Most bodybuilders take Clomiphene for two weeks at 50-100 mg per day. Some bodybuilders recommend increasing the dose to 100 mg per day.

Do not take Clomid for more than three weeks. This cycle was established by bodybuilders of the past. Since doctors do not recommend taking Clomid for bodybuilders, it is very difficult to get medical advice on taking this drug. In any case, if there are doubts about taking clomid, you can consult with specialists in the treatment of infertility: after all, they know the effect of This drug better than anyone.

It is not known exactly how long you can take Clomid. There is no data on long-term treatment with this drug. There is only a General recommendation not to take Clomid for long courses.

Clomid: Side effect

If you take Clomid for a short period of time and adhere to the specified doses, it is quite safe. Most adverse reactions caused by Clomid are temporary and disappear after discontinuation of its use.

The main side effects include:

  • flushes of blood to the face
  • abdominal discomfort
  • nausea, vomiting
  • chest pain
  • headaches
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • General fatigue
  • hair loss

Visual impairment

Since Clomid affects the brain, there is a danger of its serious side effects. By blocking estrogen-dependent receptors in the hypothalamus, Clomid thereby causes the hypothalamus to release stimulating factors or hormones that force the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins. The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland located on top of the optic nerves. With hyperstimulation of the pituitary gland, it increases in size.

pituitary gland and clomid

This leads to compression of the nerves of the eye. Many reports mention poor vision in those patients who have taken Clomid for a long time. There are various visual disturbances:

  • circles before the eyes
  • partial vision loss
  • image blurring or blurring
  • flashes

This usually occurs after a long period of use, although some patients have experienced such symptoms after 7 to 10 days of using the drug. Very often, such phenomena occurred suddenly, which is very dangerous for those who are driving a car or operating mechanisms. In most cases, these changes in vision disappeared after discontinuation of the drug. In case of such violations, you should immediately stop taking the medication and it is strongly recommended to contact an ophthalmologist.

Mood change

Another serious side effect is a change in mood. Many reports indicate that women who have taken Clomid for a long time develop a variety of behavioral problems. This can be a deep depression, irritability, anxiety or aggression. There were also cases of paranoia, anxiety, and insomnia.

Despite such unpleasant complications in some people, studies conducted in many clinics claim that this occurs in only 1% of women who have taken Clomid. There is no data on how many bodybuilders experience these side effects.

Determination of the drug level in the blood

Clomiphene can be easily purchased by anyone. However, all sports organizations prohibit its use in professional sports. The drug is easily detected in the urine for at least 5 to 12 days after its use. Tests for Clomiphene are very well developed, and some laboratories even measure the levels of testosterone and estrogens, their metabolites,and determine the percentage. With certain indicators, the use of Clomiphene is suspected.

Clomid in bodybuilding: what you need, instructions for use and side effects

Clomid in bodybuilding is one of the most common pharmacological drugs in the first-aid kit of bodybuilders on steroids. In this article, we will talk about what clomid is, how the infertility drug for women got into bodybuilding, give instructions for use on the course of steroids and after it (on the PCT), and also compare what is better tamoxifen or clomid.

What is clomid (clomiphene citrate)?

Clomid (clomiphene citrate) is a powerful antiestrogen, very similar in its action to tamoxifen (tamoxifen citrate).

Clomid became very popular in the 1970s in medicine as a drug for the treatment of infertility in women and today it is still one of its main applications.

In bodybuilding, clomid is used by athletes on a course of anabolic steroids to eliminate side effects associated with the partial conversion of steroids to estrogen (female sex hormone), as well as to stimulate internal testosterone production after a course of steroids (on PCT), which is suppressed when taking steroids.

The application of clomid

Use in medicine for infertility

When taking clomiphene citrate, the levels of gonadotropin hormones in the blood increase.

Gonadotropins are a number of hormones (follicle-stimulating, luteinizing) that play an important role in regulating the function of the sexual glands. These hormones control the levels of testosterone and estrogen in the blood, which are known to determine the development and functioning of the male and female genitals.

When the level of gonadotropins in a woman’s body increases, the egg is released (ovulation occurs) and that is why the chance of getting pregnant increases.

The use of clomid in bodybuilding on the course of steroids

Clomid has strong anti-estrogenic properties that can be useful in medicine and bodybuilding for athletes using steroids. The fact is that testosterone and some steroids derived from testosterone are partially converted into estrogens.

Clomid in bodybuilding

An increased level of estrogen leads to the development of gynecomastia (female breast growth) and excessive fluid retention in the body – both effects are undesirable in bodybuilding.

Excess fluid increases blood pressure and hides muscle relief. That is why professional bodybuilders take diuretics to remove it from the subcutaneous layers while drying the body.

What clomid does: when it is taken on a course of steroids, it blocks the estrogen receptors in the body, preventing its action. Therefore, it can be useful for fighting gynecomastia, since women’s Breasts grow under the influence of estrogen. How effective is it for this purpose?

According to information from the site steroid.com, whose creators sell sports pharmacology and apparently have a good understanding of how it works:

For serious steroid users (those who take steroids regularly and in high doses), clomid is not effective enough to protect against the side effects of steroids associated with estrogen. They will need to take aromatase inhibitors, which inhibit the synthesis of estrogen. They are the most effective means to combat gynecomastia and water retention when taking steroids.

As for fluid retention in the body: clomid can interfere with it to some extent, but it is not very effective for this, since it does not reduce the level of estrogen in the blood, but only “turns off” the estrogen receptors.

However, it should be understood that in most cases, water retention in the body is more a matter of nutrition than pharmacology. An excess of carbohydrates in the diet, for example, contributes to the retention of fluid in the body, which is further enhanced by the presence of anabolic steroids in the system.

Taking clomid on a course of steroids allows you to avoid side effects associated with increased estrogen levels (gynecomastia), but it is ineffective in fighting fluid retention in the body.

Application in bodybuilding after a course of steroids on PCT

Most often clomid in bodybuilding is used by athletes after a course of steroids on PCT – Post Cycle Therapy – therapy after a course of steroids). What for?

To speed up the recovery of natural testosterone production, which is almost completely suppressed while taking anabolics. The degree of suppression depends significantly on the type of steroids and the dose. That is why almost all courses of steroids include exogenous testosterone, but they are not limited to one. This is done in order to protect against the effects of low testosterone.

After stopping taking steroids, the natural synthesis of testosterone begins to gradually recover, but full recovery takes quite a long time: from a few months to a year. PCT was developed specifically to speed up the process of restoring natural testosterone production with the help of pharmacology. The most popular PCT courses usually include clomid and tamoxifen, as well as the peptide hormone – chorionic gonadotropin. Tamoxifen is a b analog of clomid for its antiestrogenic properties.

What does clomid do: it stimulates the release of gonadotropins, which in turn stimulates the natural production of testosterone. What will happen if you do not do PCT after the course and do not take clomid? At the very least, you will have to deal with the symptoms of low testosterone for a long time. Recommend: How to boost testosterone in natural ways: 7 natural testosterone boosters. It is important to keep in mind that with low testosterone, the level of the catabolic hormone cortisol increases, which makes it easier to gain fat mass and actively begins to destroy muscle.

PCT is recommended if the use of steroids is stopped for more than 8 weeks. If the break between courses (bridge) is less than 8 weeks or small doses of exogenous testosterone are administered during it, as is customary for hardcore athletes, but the PCT can not be done.

Clomiphene citrate is taken after a course of steroids on PCT to speed up the recovery of natural testosterone levels.

How effective is clomid for restoring testosterone? Scientific research

Scientific research confirms that clomiphene citrate is indeed effective in increasing testosterone levels. Taking clomiphene for 2 weeks by men aged 18-55 years led to an increase in testosterone levels of about 2 times in most of them, but some participants after 2 weeks and a month there was a sharp paradoxical decrease in testosterone for scientists. A study on 125 men with low testosterone (less than 400 ng/DL) and reduced sexual desire who took clomid for 3 months showed that the level of testosterone increased approximately twice (from 309 ng/DL to 642 ng/DL). There were no changes in the level of cholesterol in the blood, and no side effects were noted by any of the participants.

And here, scientists have studied the long-term effect of taking clomid in men with low testosterone levels. At the beginning, the average testosterone level was 228 ng / DL. After one year of use – 612 ng/DL, after two years 562 ng/DL, after three years 582 ng / DL. Significantly increased bone density. No side effects were observed. Clomid significantly improves sexual function in men with hypogonadism and erectile dysfunction.

Scientific studies confirm the effectiveness of clomid in increasing testosterone levels by an average of 2 times both with short-term administration (for 2 weeks) and with long-term (for several years).

Side effects of clomid in bodybuilding

Clomid is considered one of the most well-tolerated antiestrogens in sports pharmacology and does not lead to serious side effects in either men or women. This is confirmed by scientific research. However, some side effects are possible.

Women who take clomiphene citrate for infertility treatment note at least one of the following side effects: irritability, mood swings, depression, water retention in the body. And here are other possible side effects:

  • headache;
  • nausea;
  • tides (a sharp increase in temperature);
  • uterine bleeding;
  • discomfort in the chest;
  • eye problem;
  • acne (pimples).

When using clomid, vision may be impaired in the form of blurring and blurring. This is stated on the same website of the sports pharmacology store steroids.com 1. it is also recommended That in this case “stop using it and then vision will be restored… in most cases. There are several cases where this did not happen, most likely because clomid was taken for a very long time in very high doses.”

Infertile marriage is a problem?

World statistics gives the figure of prevalence of 10-15%, but I think in our country things are different and the reason is not that our women or men more and more sick, no, it’s not, and that not all women and some doctors along with them, unable to distinguish normal from pathology and problems sometimes just imaginary, not real.

I conditionally divided these women into 2 groups.

The first group is those unfortunate people who do not know the physiological norms of their body, who after 1-2 months of unsuccessful attempts run in horror to the doctor for help, because it should not be the same.

Everyone in the movies watched how after 1 time Rosalina got pregnant, and she also had a whole 2 months of attempts and nothing came out. Panic, horror, confusion.

infertile marriage

Then there may be several scenarios for the development of events, depending on which doctor will get such a woman. Either they will start looking for some far-fetched problems, such as hidden infections, or they will calm her down, explain that this is normal and she will calmly continue trying to conceive.

The second group is those women who really have a real problem. But it’s not all that simple, because some of these women get to those doctors who in the 21st century, in the age of information, lead their patients on the wrong path, misinforming and telling nonsense like that the cause of infertility is HPV or increased D-dimer, mutations in the folate cycle genes, of course, ureaplasm, high homocysteine, herpes virus, cervical erosion, cytomegalovirus, multifolycular ovaries on ultrasound, low progesterone. The list goes on indefinitely. The absurd scheme of examination and the same absurd treatment regimens. Sometimes these things take years.

I am not a reproductologist, I do not perform insemination, IVF, OR other methods of assisted reproductive technologies. I never say that by coming to me, you will definitely solve your problem.

Unfortunately, sometimes this is not the case, but every obstetrician — gynecologist should be able to examine a infertile couple according to the standards, without prescribing meaningless and useless examinations, without intimidating, and simply in essence explaining the problem and possible ways to solve it. But today is not about doctors, but about infertility.

So, first, the infertile couple are those couples who, after 1 year of regular sexual life without contraception, did not get the desired pregnancy.

According to statistics, only 30% of absolutely healthy married couples get pregnant in 3 months, 70% — in 6-7 and 80-90% – in a year.

The second point, what is regular sexual contact? This is regular vaginal sex once every 1-2-3 days without taking any contraceptives.

Couples who should not wait for a whole year, but go to the doctor after 6 months of unsuccessful attempts. This:

  • Women over 35 years of age;
  • Women over 35 years of age, but who have gynecological diseases (endometriosis, past infections such as chlamydia or gonorrhea).

The causes of infertile marriages

  • Ovulation disorders (there is no exit of the egg from the follicle).
  • Reduced ovarian reserve. A rapid decrease in the number of own follicles occurs after 35 years, plus the quality of the oocytes themselves decreases. Here, the main reason may be age, as well as chemotherapy, radiation therapy, and genetics. So don’t delay your pregnancy.
  • Violation of the patency of the fallopian tubes, adhesions of the pelvic organs (chlamydia, gonorrhea,endometriosis, surgery. Any operation is always a risk of occurrence of the adhesive process).
  • Endometriosis
  • Leiomyoma of the uterus. The relationship between the presence of submucous uterine myoma (when the nodes are located in the uterine cavity) and infertility has been proved. Elimination of submucous nodes increases the chances of pregnancy.
  • Lifestyle – Smoking, alcohol, stress, hot baths and saunas for men, drugs, etc.

In 10-15% of cases, the cause of infertility remains unknown.

What is not the cause of infertility

If we talk about pregnancy very briefly and banal, then in order for it to occur, ovulation in the ovaries (the output of an egg from a Mature follicle), the uterus, the patency of the fallopian tubes and a sperm that is able to fertilize the egg.

The main reason is the violation of ovulation

The most important and I would say the key point is the conversation with the doctor. Here the entire life history is clarified (starting from birth, menstruation, family history, etc.), all concomitant diseases, risk factors, and only then, the main path of examination of a woman is determined, it can be different. But we will talk about the standards that apply to most women.