Hormones are biologically active substances of organic nature that are produced by the endocrine glands. Entering the blood, hormones have a regulating effect on the entire body, in particular, on metabolism and physiological functions. One of the most important hormones is estrogen. What does estrogen affect and what can its lack and overabundance lead to?
Estrogen – what is this hormone?
The term “estrogen” refers to a whole subclass of steroid female sex hormones, which are produced mainly by the ovarian follicular apparatus. There are three types of estrogens: estradiol, estriol, and estrone. By the way, such hormones are also found in the male body, where the testicles, adrenal cortex and extra-gonadal tissues are responsible for their production. But as in men the hormone estrogen is produced in minimal numbers, they are considered to be female.
What is the hormone oestrogen responsible for in women:
- Development and functioning of the reproductive system. Estrogen stimulates the development of the uterus and fallopian tubes, as well as the vagina, stroma, and ductal mammary glands. Thanks to the female hormones estrogen, girls in adolescence have secondary sexual characteristics and menstruation begins — it is estrogen that contributes to the regular rejection of the endometrium from the uterus.
- The circulatory system. The hormone estrogen increases the concentration of iron, copper and thyroxine in the blood. In addition, it has an anti-sclerotic effect, increases the amount of high-density lipoproteins in the plasma, which reduce the risk of atherosclerosis and various diseases of the cardiovascular system. Also, the “female” hormone reduces the content of low-density lipoproteins, which are one of the main carriers of cholesterol.
- Growth and restoration of bone tissue. Estrogen in the body prevents the leaching of calcium, protects joint tissue and stimulates the recovery of bone cells.
- Elasticity of the skin. “Female” hormone helps to activate the production of collagen, which determines the elasticity of the skin.
- Memory and psychoemotional state. Estrogen receptors are concentrated in areas of the brain that are responsible for information assimilation, as well as mood and emotions.
In short, estrogen is a key factor in maintaining women’s health and beauty. By the way, it also affects women’s libido, which is also very important for a happy life. This hormone is directly related to the General well-being of the fair sex. A woman with normal levels of the hormone estrogen is less irritable, she does not have edema, unreasonable headaches and problems with excess weight.
What can lead to a lack or overabundance of estrogen
As it is already clear, the level of estrogen in the blood directly affects the physical and psychological state of a woman, so it is very important to monitor this indicator and take measures for any imbalance.
The consequences of the fall in estrogen levels:
- various pains, mainly headache and heart, as well as pain in the lower back, back;
- deterioration of thermoregulation, in particular, hot flashes;
- bone fragility;
- memory impairment;
- appearance of wrinkles;
- fluctuations in the emotional background.
With an excess of estrogens in women, there are:
- various inflammations;
- abdominal distention;
- pressure increase;
- aggression, irritability, and sleep problems;
- all kinds of pain.
There are several reasons for reducing and increasing estrogen in a woman’s body. This may be a disorder of the functioning of the pituitary gland, an unbalanced diet, too high physical activity, menopause and the period preceding it.
Excess estrogen is rare, usually it is necessary to correct the lack of this hormone. The most common cause is age-related changes in the female body that begin after the age of 40. Unfortunately, it is impossible to avoid them and ensure eternal youth, but there are ways to slow down such processes.
What can I do if the hormone is not enough?
The lack of natural hormones can be partially compensated by taking phytoestrogens. These are natural substances of plant origin. The most studied of these is genistein. It shows similar activity to natural hormones, helps to strengthen bones by maintaining the processes of formation and mineralization of bone tissue, plays an important role in maintaining joint health by regulating metabolic processes in the cells of articular cartilage. By the way, bone mineralization also reduces the risk of a dangerous disease-osteoporosis.