Menstrual cycles are caused by the growth of the follicle and the release of the egg from it. This phenomenon is called ovulation. Then the egg enters the lumen of the fallopian tube, where it can be fertilized by a sperm. Conception cannot occur if the meeting of these two germ cells does not take place. Therefore, not every sexual act ends with fertilization. It is necessary to simultaneously match several conditions, one of which is ovulation that occurred the day before. What could be the reasons for the absence of ovulation?
Absence of ovulation: anovulation is a condition in which, for various reasons, the egg does not exit. The onset of pregnancy in a natural way is impossible. But this does not mean that a healthy woman must conceive after a month of sexual life without protection. The moment of rupture of the follicle is theoretically calculated, but in practice ovulation can occur both earlier and later (may depend on external factors), there may be cycles without ovulation (4 times a year such cycles are the norm), not every egg is capable of fertilization. It is believed that in healthy couples of 25 years planning pregnancy, the percentage of its occurrence (precisely because of the unpredictability of the cycle) is about 30-35%, which is slightly different from the percentage with IVF under the same conditions. The cause may be more significant deviations associated with pathologies. Infertility can be discussed if pregnancy does not occur during the year of life with a partner without the use of contraception until the age of 35 and within 6 months if the partner is over 35 years old.
One of the reasons may be anovulation. This diagnosis is made after a targeted examination.
Physiological reasons for the absence of ovulation
There are a number of conditions in which a healthy female body does not provide an egg during one or a number of cycles. And this is completely normal from the point of view of physiology. So, ovulation stops immediately after pregnancy and resumes only after the end of lactation. The restructuring of the body occurs due to the natural reaction of the endocrine system.
Ovulation does not always occur simultaneously with the onset of menstruation in teenage girls. The postponement of puberty can last up to two years. And this is also considered a physiological norm.
In childbearing age, outside the periods of pregnancy and lactation, women may experience pauses of so-called rest, during which ovulation does not occur for physiological reasons. Such states occur periodically and may have a length of several cycles. Normally, during the year there is from one to 5 times skipping the output of the oocyte.
The number of eggs in women is limited, so when their limit is exhausted, natural menopause occurs. By the end of childbearing age, ovulation may occur irregularly.
What diseases can cause anovulation
Diseases of the endocrine system lead to pathological anovulation, first of all. The so–called brain glands – the pituitary gland and hypothalamus – play an important role in controlling the processes occurring in the ovaries. They produce important hormones that affect the maturation of germ cells. A violation of the blood circulation of the brain or its tumors often cause anovulation. For the normal functioning of the ovaries , the danger is:
- pituitary tumor lesion;
- hypothalamic dysfunction;
- increased prolactin levels;
- increased androgen levels;
The absence of ovulation can also occur against the background of:
- inflammation of the appendages;
- polycystic ovaries;
- thyroid disorders;
- liver diseases;
- injuries and pathologies of internal genitalia;
- underweight or overweight;
- taking hormonal contraception medications;
- uncontrolled use of steroid drugs.
These diseases and pathological conditions are not necessarily accompanied by a complete absence of ovulation. But if anovulation takes place, then it is associated with one of these reasons or their complex.
Symptoms and diagnosis
With a normal menstrual cycle that lasts 28-30 days, ovulation occurs between the 9th and 14th day. The output of the egg can be tracked at home using an ovulatory test, which can be purchased at any pharmacy. If the test is positive, it means that the most favorable moment for conception has come. Indirect signs of the approach and onset of the moment of maturation and release of the oocyte include changes in the nature of vaginal secretions – they become transparent. If a woman has a lowered pain threshold, then she may feel a pulling pain in the ovary area at the moment of rupture of the dominant follicle.
The absence of ovulation can be indicated by many disorders of ovarian function, including polycystic. They manifest themselves as a cycle failure, menstruation delays or their complete absence. Obvious signs of anovulation:
- the absence of a natural increase in rectal temperature observed in the middle of the cycle;
- the nature of vaginal discharge does not change in the period between menstruation;
- a sharp deterioration in the condition of the skin and hair;
- negative ovulation test on probable days.
To more accurately establish the fact of anovulation, it is necessary to monitor 3-4 menstrual cycles in a row.
Even if a woman is not planning pregnancy in the near future, with symptoms of anovulation, she needs to consult a gynecologist to prevent the development of primary diseases.
The diagnosis of anovulation can only be made by a doctor. To do this, he needs to conduct a dynamic analysis of menstrual cycles based on observations.
Treatment in the absence of ovulation
Based on the results of the examination, the reason for the absence of ovulation in a woman of childbearing age is established. But often this violation is associated with lifestyle, stress, unhealthy diet and various abuses. In this case, it is enough to come to a healthy lifestyle, eliminate stress factors (perhaps undergo a course of psychotherapy) and ovulation is restored. If hormonal disorders were detected during the examination, then the treatment consists in its stabilization. The doctor may prescribe hormonal or metabolic drugs (for example, clomid).
With polycystic ovaries, they increase in size and thicken, which makes it difficult for the egg to exit. In addition, they begin to produce an excess of androgenic hormones, which suppresses the maturation of female germ cells inside the follicles. Infertility resulting from polycystic fibrosis is treated therapeutically or surgically, by resection of the ovaries.
With various pathologies that have led to a condition when the egg does not come out, an appropriate treatment strategy is chosen in gynecology. In itself, the absence of ovulation is just a symptom of a primary disease or a whole complex. Therefore, diagnosis is a very important step in restoring ovarian function and normalizing the menstrual cycle.
Prevention of problems associated with anovulation
The reasons for the absence of normal maturation and release of eggs, which are not related to congenital pathologies and hereditary factors, can be prevented with the help of prevention. Every woman should keep a menstrual diary. In cases of cycle failures, it is necessary to consult a gynecologist unscheduled. A timely examination will help determine the cause of the failure and prevent complications. A woman should monitor her diet, prevent deviations of body weight from her age norm. Obesity or anorexia are conditions in which the hormonal system fails, which certainly affects the function of the reproductive organs. Having a normal body mass index is useful not only for conception, but also for normal fetal gestation.
Women are not recommended to choose hormonal drugs on their own and take them uncontrollably. This can lead to a whole range of problems, including infertility due to ovarian dysfunction.