Why is it not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation?

When a couple starts planning to conceive a baby, the first few unsuccessful attempts can cause a lot of questions — why pregnancy does not occur, because partners try to conduct sexual acts during this, the most favorable fertile female period. In fact, this is a normal situation, the reasons for which may be quite natural. But also pathological prerequisites are not excluded.

General information

Ovulation is a short period of the female menstrual cycle when a Mature egg comes out of the dominant follicle into the fallopian tube. A set of germ cells in an immature state in girls is available even when the baby is in the womb. Then, during life, part of the first — order oocytes die, and part is spent on ensuring the cyclical work of the female body. Each month, one (rarely more) follicles ripen, which break in the middle of the cycle under the influence of hormones, releasing an oocyte ready for fertilization by a sperm.

Ovulation lasts about an hour, and then for another day the egg retains the ability to be fertilized.

If during these days the meeting with the male sex cell does not occur, the oocyte dies, descends into the uterus and comes out with menstrual bleeding along with endometrial particles that have grown under the influence of progesterone in the second phase of the female cycle in anticipation of a fertilized egg.

Female fertility (the ability to reproduce) is largely due to the ovulatory process, and the probability of conceiving a child on the days of ovulation is maximum. But the maximum is not 100%. According to who, female fertility during ovulation depends on age, its highest value is no more than 33% in women under 25 years of age, no more than 25% in women under 30 years of age. Reproductologists say that these figures are somewhat inflated, and the real probability of conceiving a child for the first time in one cycle in healthy women and men does not exceed 11% at the age of 20-25 years. Naturally, after 35 years, the probability does not exceed 4-7%, and after 40 years — 3%.

This is due to the deterioration of the genetic material of the female germ cells, and if the partner is age-related, then his germ cells are probably not of excellent quality. These statistics are not a cause for concern. About 60% of married couples get pregnant safely within six months, and another 30% of couples see positive pregnancy test results within a year.

In about 25% of cases, even if sexual intercourse was performed exactly during the fertile window, conception does not occur, and the reasons for this have not yet been established by geneticists and doctors. In addition, in almost half of cases of family infertility, poor sperm quality plays a decisive role.

why it is not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation

Conditions for successful conception

To find the answer to the question of why a woman can not get pregnant during ovulation with the first or second baby, you need to make sure that the couple correctly approaches planning and meets all the conditions for successful conception.

A woman is ovulating

The fact is that every lady in the course of life there are “empty” anovulatory cycles. The older a woman gets, the greater the number of such cycles per year (compare — in 20 years, anovulatory cycles are usually 1-2 per year, and in 35 years — up to 5-6). Ovulation can also occur late or earlier, and this scenario can be triggered by stress, a cold, a trip, or a flight.

In order to answer the question of whether the egg is released at all, you can use home ovulation tests: when they show two stripes, it’s time to start active actions.

The accuracy of home tests is lower than laboratory tests, and you can visit a doctor to do an ovarian ultrasound on day 5-6 of the cycle immediately after your period. And closer to the middle of the cycle, you can do a blood test for luteinizing hormone. Its sharp jump indicates the approach of ovulation.

The man is healthy and capable of conception

A simple analysis — spermogram will help significantly reduce the time and nervous costs when planning a baby. If the quality of a man’s germ cells leaves much to be desired, the probability of fertilization is significantly reduced, and the risk of conceiving a child with genetic abnormalities or chromosomal errors increases.

In this case, you first need to improve the quality of sperm by taking vitamins, giving up bad habits, visiting the bath and sauna. And only after three months (this is how long spermatogenesis lasts) to start the exciting process of “catching” ovulation.

Sexual acts occur during the fertile window

Spermatozoa live longer than the egg (up to 3-4 days), they are quite capable of “waiting” for the egg to come out already in the fallopian tube, and therefore it is recommended to start having sex 3-4 days before ovulation and do it a day later up to 2-3 days after ovulation, refusing to use contraception, douching, and lubricants.

With moderate frequency of sexual contact, a man’s sperm will be of optimal quality, which will help to conceive a baby faster.

The couple is in the right psychological state

Any stress increases the production of stress hormones, which partially block the production of sex hormones. That is why it is often impossible to get pregnant, even if the sperm is of normal quality and ovulation is present. Doctors have long noticed that conception occurs most quickly in the first year of a couple’s life together, while the feelings are fresh. If you turn sexual acts into a sports attraction with the sole purpose of conceiving, the probability of successful conception decreases.

A woman who every month with trepidation waits for two stripes on the test, can not be distracted by anything else, switch, is in a state of chronic stress, and the probability of conception itself becomes several orders of magnitude lower.

why it is not always possible to get pregnant during ovulation

Possible reasons for the lack of conception

A variety of factors can affect the ability of male and female cells to merge, and not all of them have been studied in detail by doctors and scientists. But even those that are known are quite enough to understand that conception is a delicate matter.

It’s mostly about the health of the partners. A woman’s probability of conception is reduced not only by age, but also by bad habits, living in an area with unfavorable environmental factors, working at night, professional contact with radiation, paints and varnishes, and toxins. And even if there is ovulation, it is not a fact that the oocyte will be of good quality and fertilization will be successful.

The male fertility factor can be affected by the habit of wearing tight underwear and trousers, which disrupt blood circulation in the scrotum and increase its temperature. The habit of steaming in the bath, turning on car seat heating also affects the quality of sperm.

We can’t even imagine how many conceptions we’ve missed in our lives! After all, sometimes pregnancy “breaks down” at the very initial stage — the fetal egg cannot descend into the uterus, implantation does not occur, because of a genetic error, it stops developing and growing and dies. In this case, your monthly period may arrive a little late. And a woman will never know that conception did take place.

The reason for the absence of pregnancy with strict adherence to the rules of successful conception can be any gynecological pathology — obstruction of the fallopian tubes, inflammation in the uterus, ovarian dysfunction. Often, doctors also diagnose hormonal infertility, in which the level of hormones in the female body does not allow her to be pregnant (progesterone or estrogen deficiency). Often, ovulation does not occur, and if it does, the level of natural hormonal support may not be sufficient to ensure the survival of the embryo in the very first days after conception.

In men, the cause may be hidden in varicocele, prostatitis, and sexual infections, many of which occur without pronounced symptoms, and therefore can not be immediately noticed by the carrier.

We should also talk about antisperm antibodies that produce the immune system of a man or woman. The immune defense simply perceives spermatozoa as foreign objects, and throws all its forces at their speedy destruction. In this case, sperm die in the body of a man, if he has antisperm antibodies, or die before reaching the egg, if such immune cells are produced in a woman.

The immune system can react to sperm this way for some reasons. For example, a man underwent surgery on the genitals, there was an injury, a bruise of the genitals, and individual germ cells, getting not where they should be, caused an aggressive immune response. In women, this form of infertility develops due to excessive passion for anal sex with ejaculation in the rectum, as well as when swallowing sperm during oral contact. This is one of the most difficult types of infertility to treat.

What to do?

Whatever your ideas about your own fertility, it’s best to start planning a pregnancy by going to the doctor. A woman needs to be examined by a gynecologist, put her own weight in order (even losing 5% of the original body weight increases the likelihood of conception). It is also important for a man to pay attention to his diet, bad habits and make a spermogram.

A simple and quick survey will allow the couple to plan more constructively for adding to the family, to know exactly the “weak” sides of each other. Let’s just say that there are almost no insurmountable situations. Even if some abnormalities are detected, in 96% of cases, after correctly selected treatment, the problem is eliminated, and the couple can begin to successfully plan the baby.

The remaining 3% of couples will be helped by methods of assisted reproductive medicine — IVF, ICSI, egg donation, sperm donation.

A trip to a psychotherapist is inevitable in psychogenic infertility, when the cause lies in severe stress, emotions, and fears. After eliminating these feelings, the couple usually manages to conceive a baby without any problems.

Clomid (clomiphene) or nolvadex (tamoxifen), which is better?

In this article, we will try to resolve doubts about the choice between two drugs, as well as find differences: clomid or nolvadex.

Clomiphene citrate (available in pharmacies under the brand name Clomid) and tamoxifen (trade name Nolvadex) are antiestrogens belonging to the same group of triphenylethylenes. They are structurally similar and classified as selective estrogen receptor modulators with mixed agonistic and antagonistic properties. This means that in certain tissues they block the action of estrogen by binding to receptors, while in other tissues they can act like real estrogen by activating receptors. In men, both drugs act as antiestrogens in their ability to interfere with the negative feedback of estrogens to the hypothalamus and stimulate increased production of GnRH (gonadoliberin). As a result, the production of the luteinizing hormone prolactin and the follicle-stimulating hormone by the pituitary gland will be increased, which in turn can increase the production of testosterone by the testicles. Both drugs do this, but for some reason, bodybuilders continue to think that only clomid is good for stimulating testosterone.

bodybuilders: clomid or nolvadex?

Research conducted in the late 70s at the University of Ghent in Belgium clarifies the benefits of nolvadex over clomid in increasing testosterone levels. The researchers looked at the effect of nolvadex and clomid on the endocrine system of healthy men, as well as those who suffered from a small number of sperm (oligospermia). It was also found that Nolvadex, when used for 10 days at a dosage of 20 mg per day, increased serum testosterone levels by 142% from the initial level, which was comparable to the effect of 150 mg of clomid per day over the same time period (the increase in testosterone levels was slightly, but not significantly, more with clomid). We must remember that this is the effect of three 50mg clomid tablets. With approximately the same price of 50mg of clomid and 20mg of nolvadex, we already see a difference in the price / result ratio in favor of nolvadex.

Differences between clomid and nolvadex

Clomid acts on estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland and ovaries. By binding estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland, clomid breaks the negative feedback mechanism, i.e. if usually estrogens, acting on the pituitary gland, reduce the production of FSH and LH, this does not happen when taking clomid. Clomid does not directly affect the level of estrogens in the blood.

Nolvadex also does not affect the level of estrogens in the blood, because its mechanism of action is also reduced to the blockade of estrogen receptors, including in the pituitary gland. However, clomid is a more selective (selective) blocker, while nolvadex is less selective. While clomid binds to estrogen receptors primarily in the pituitary gland and testicles, nolvadex binds to them almost throughout the body. The exception is bone tissue, where clomid and tamoxifen, on the contrary, activate estrogen receptors.

Thus, clomid acts as an antagonist of estrogens and eliminates their depressing effect on the hypothalamus and pituitary gland, contributing to a faster recovery of their function. Nolvadex blocks receptors in almost all tissues, and also helps the body begin to restore its own testosterone. It is important to note that nolvadex is able to block estrogen receptors in the pituitary gland to a lesser extent than clomid.

Clomiphene and tamoxifen do not affect the metabolism of estrogenic hormones, so against the background of taking these drugs, estrogens continue to be destroyed by liver enzymes, and do not accumulate in the body.

Tamoxifen has disadvantages: it is quite toxic (sometimes it is manifested by loss of appetite and nausea, and the risk of thrombosis increases). Tamoxifen increases the number of progesterone receptors, so it can not be used if the course is based on progestin drugs (nandrolone, trenbolone). In this case, you should use clomiphene.

Clomid: common fault

  • Both drugs inhibit the production of insulin-like growth factor-1
  • Directly inhibit the function of the testicles
  • Increase sex hormone binding globulin
  • Increase the concentration of estrogens several times
  • Cause visual impairment with prolonged use
  • In some cases, when using Clomid for a month at a dosage of 25 mg per day, after 2 weeks after the end of the course, there was a decrease in total testosterone by 16-17% (while there was a decrease in estradiol by 13.5%)
  • It is important to understand that in some people, the pituitary-hypothalamus-testicular arch (GGT) may not respond to stimulation with Clomid (clomiphene) or nolvadex (tamoxifen)

It is most rational to use aromatase inhibitors during the course, among which Proviron is especially popular, since this drug does not negatively affect the secretion of growth hormone and increases the concentration of anabolic hormones in the blood by suppressing aromatization. In the last week of the course and 2 weeks after, Tamoxifen should be used as the main component of PCT in the absence of Proviron, the start of Nolvadex administration falls on the 2nd week of the steroid cycle, and ends 2-3 weeks after the end of the cycle, the average dose is 10-20 mg per day. I would like to pay special attention to the common misconception that antiestrogens are recommended to drink after a cycle. The level of estrogens increases at the end of the first week of the cycle, so it is from this moment that you need to start taking!

About ovulation tests

All couples who want to have a child know that you can only conceive a child on the day of ovulation. Gynecologists say that ovulation occurs in the female body from about 12 to 16 days of the cycle. However, due to some reasons (stress, climate change, hormonal failures, etc.), ovulation may shift for several days, and occur at the beginning of the cycle, or at the end of the cycle. In addition, the time of follicle development may differ not only in several different women, but even in the same one — in different cycles. This is confirmed by the planning moms themselves, who determine ovulation by tests over several cycles. So how do you determine the right day for conception, how do ovulation tests work? Now we will talk about this in detail.

How ovulation tests work

Each menstrual cycle, a woman Matures one, two or more follicles in the ovaries. As the follicle Matures, female hormones called estrogens are produced in the cells of the follicle. The larger the follicle becomes, the more estrogen its cells produce. The high content of estrogen stimulates a sharp increase in the content of luteinizing hormone, which causes the egg to literally break through the ovarian wall within one to two days after a sharp rise in its level. When the level of these estrogens reaches a level that will be sufficient for ovulation, luteinizing hormone (abbreviated as LH) is released. A small amount of LH is always present in the urine, but 24-36 hours before ovulation (the release of an egg from the ovary), its concentration increases sharply.

ovulation tests

To fertilize an egg, sperm must enter the female body at about the same time as the egg leaves the follicle. It may seem that this is easy to achieve, but we must remember that the egg after leaving the follicle lives for only 24 hours, and the sperm remain able to fertilize it for 3-4 days, less often a week. Thus, sex should occur at the appropriate time, i.e. at ovulation, if the couple is planning to conceive. Without tests, this can sometimes be difficult to achieve.

What day should I start testing?

This day depends on the duration of the menstrual cycle. The first day of the cycle is considered the day when menstruation began. Cycle length — the number of days that have passed from the first day of the last menstruation to the first day of the next. If you have a constant cycle, it is better to start doing tests 17 days before the start of the next menstruation. For example, if your normal cycle length is 34 days, then you should start testing from day 18.

If the normal length of your cycle is 28 days, then you should start testing on the 11th day. If your cycle duration is different, select the shortest cycle for the last 6 months and use its duration to calculate the day when to start testing. To start testing, it is not superfluous to visit an ultrasound, after which, after making sure that the follicle has reached 18-20 mm, you can start testing every day. For convenience, ovulation tests are not sold in a single version, but in the amount of 5, 7 or 10 pieces. For accurate results, it is better to use tests 2 times a day (morning and evening).

When is the best time to use an ovulation test?

The best time for testing is from 10 am to 8 PM, this is the time when LH is produced, so you should stick to this time of the test. At the same time, you should refrain from urinating for at least 3 hours before the test. Avoid excessive fluid intake before starting testing, as this may lead to a decrease in the concentration of LH in the urine and reduce the reliability of the result.

How to perform an ovulation test correctly?

If you are using a digital ovulation test, remove it from the packaging, remove the cap, and place the tip of the test strip in the device module, following the arrows. If everything is done correctly, you will hear a click, and a ready indicator will appear on the test.

digital ovulation test

It is not recommended to perform the test until it lights up. Collect the urine in a jar and immerse the absorbent end of the test in the urine for 15 seconds. Place the receiver on a flat, dry, clean horizontal surface. Wait 4-5 minutes. The ready symbol will start flashing on the device, and you can see the result on the display in a few minutes.

If you use a test strip, then you need to open the bag, get the strip and lower it into a pre-prepared container with urine. The test strip should be lowered for 10-20 seconds to the specified “Max” mark. Next, the test strip should be placed on a flat surface. The result should be evaluated at room temperature in 5 minutes, but not later than 10 minutes after the start of the procedure. The test strip is only used for one-time use.

Digital ovulation test results

To determine the exact result, compare the color intensity (lighter or darker) of the test strip with the control strip. The digital ovulation test is convenient for recognizing the result, which can be one of three and is indicated on the screen.

An empty circle indicates that there is no LH release yet, or its presence is insignificant and you need to continue monitoring the surge using tests.

Smiley-indicates the highest PH value. The cell is already on its way or about to be released. Sexual acts can be safely planned for this and the next day.

The results of the test strips for ovulation

First, it is important to determine which line on the test is the control line and which is the test line. The control card always appears, regardless of the presence of ovulation, it shows that the test is correct and the test was performed correctly. The test line (second) indicates the presence of LH in the urine.

Look at the test, if there is a second pale bar — the test is negative, the release of LH has not yet occurred, and testing needs to continue. If, after testing correctly for several days, you have not found the second bright stripe, then the cycle is anovulatory. There are several reasons for this: stressful situations, sudden climate change, the use of powerful medications, the postpartum period, breast-feeding, premenopause, active physical activity, etc.

A positive test is a bright stripe the same as the control one or even brighter. A positive test means that you will ovulate within 24-36 hours.

The most appropriate time for conception begins from the moment when You have determined that the release of LH has already occurred. In this case, the release of LH occurred on the 15th day of the cycle and if sexual intercourse occurs in the next two days, the chance of getting pregnant will be maximum. Once you have determined that the release of LH has already occurred, there is no need to continue testing, the tests will start to fade.

Signs and symptoms of ovulation, feelings of a woman (part 2)

Today we publish the continuation of the article “Signs and symptoms of ovulation, feelings of a woman”, the first part can be read here

The feeling after ovulation

Some women, especially those who use the calendar method of pregnancy prevention, are interested in symptoms after ovulation. This is how women calculate “safe” days for unwanted pregnancies. These signs are very unusual and may coincide with the early symptoms of pregnancy:

Vaginal discharge

As soon as the egg is released from the main follicle and dies (its life span is 24, maximum 48 hours), the discharge from the genital tract also changes. Vaginal whites lose their transparency, become milky, possibly interspersed with small lumps, sticky and poorly drawn.

Pains

Within one to two days after ovulation, discomfort and minor pain in the lower abdomen disappear.

Libido

Gradually, sexual desire also fades, since now it makes no sense for spermatozoa to meet with an egg, it has already died.

Basal temperature

If the basal temperature is significantly higher than 37 degrees at the moment of rupture of the Graaf vesicle, then after ovulation it decreases by several tenths of a degree, although it remains above the 37 degree mark. This sign is unreliable, since even with conception, the basal temperature will be above the 37-degree mark. The only difference is that by the end of the second phase (before the start of menstruation), the temperature will drop to 37 degrees or lower.

Acne

On the eve and at the time of ovulation, hormonal changes occur in the body, which affects the condition of the skin of the face – acne appears. Once ovulation is complete, the rash gradually disappears.

Ultrasound data

Ultrasound allows you to identify the dominant follicle that has fallen due to the rupture, a small amount of fluid in the post-uterine space, and later the yellow body that is forming. Ultrasound data are most significant in the case of dynamic research (maturation of follicles, determination of the dominant follicle and its subsequent rupture).

Calendar method for determining ovulation

Ovulation is the release of a Mature egg from the ovary. The egg Matures during the menstrual cycle, which is necessary for the preparation of the uterus and the maturation of the egg, the result of which is ovulation. To determine ovulation using the calendar method, you need to know your menstrual cycle for the last few months. Knowing the cycle, you can calculate its length, i.e. the period from the beginning of one month to the beginning of the next. From the total duration of the cycle, 14 days are subtracted. So, if the cycle is 28 days, then subtracting 14 days, we get the 14th day of the cycle, in which the egg can be released from the ovary. For conception during the week before and after ovulation, the couple is recommended to have an active sexual life, preferably with breaks of 1-2 days, in order to have time to Mature the sperm. As already calculated above, the release of a Mature egg occurs somewhere in the middle of the menstrual cycle.

However, every woman may have ovulation shifts a few days later, this may be due to infectious pathologies of the reproductive system; excessive physical exertion; stress and hormonal disorders.

Menstrual cycle

Among the causes of early ovulation, the following can be distinguished: disorders in the balance of estrogen and progesterone hormone; disorders in the adrenal cortex; colds and flu diseases, etc. Such factors may well trigger the onset of early ovulation. In addition, each cause can affect other systems of the female body. Therefore, to avoid this, it is recommended to avoid such factors that may affect ovulation and, as a result, the bearing of a child in the future. Premature ovulation is dangerous if it repeatedly occurs in the female body, in this case, the reasons lie in hormonal failures and other various abnormalities, a woman may need gynecological intervention. In addition, it is possible that pregnancy will not occur for a long time, if only the couple focuses on the middle of the cycle. Or, on the contrary, the onset of an unwanted pregnancy, if the woman is not protected at the beginning of the cycle, again using the calendar method. Over the course of a woman’s life, ovulatory shifts in different directions are periodically observed, so there may be a late release of the egg.

The reasons for late ovulation lie in the following: hormonal disorders in the body; lack of weight, because lack of adipose tissue negatively affects the production of estrogen, provoking a delay in maturation and exit of the female cell; taking emergency contraceptives in the past; gynecological pathologies, infections and lack of menstruation, are also characteristic companions of late egg release. To restore the cycle, a woman needs to undergo a full examination, after which appropriate treatment is prescribed.

After accurate compliance with all medical recommendations, ovulatory processes are normalized, the cycle is restored and a long-awaited pregnancy occurs.

Determination of ovulation by basal body temperature

Basal temperature measurements are performed in the morning, however, it is not advisable to get out of bed before measuring, so prepare a thermometer in the evening. To measure the temperature, you can use both a simple mercury thermometer and an electronic one. Carefully insert the thermometer into the rectum and hold it there for five to seven minutes. Record the measured temperature in the table every day, except for days when a woman has her period. After taking measurements throughout the cycle, you need to build a graph. To build a table, you can specify the days of temperature measurement on the top, and on the left, specify the possible BTT on these days. At the junction of the lines, put points that are connected by a straight line.

On days when there is a sharp increase in body temperature, after its rapid decrease, and ovulation occurs. This jump is explained by the fact that during ovulation, the hormone progesterone is actively produced, which affects the thermoregulation center in the brain. It is its increase that leads to fluctuations in BTT, which increases sharply after the release of a Mature egg. If you notice strong, atypical changes in temperature, or it does not change at all, you need to see a doctor to find the cause, which may be due to estrogen deficiency or other factors. It is easy to create a basal temperature chart using special applications that are placed on some women’s websites or in applications.

This method is available, but not 100% reliable, because there is not always time to measure the temperature, you can also just forget about the measurement, missed days can significantly change the picture and schedule of building the BTT

In addition, factors such as medication, sexual intercourse, climate change, stress, etc. can affect the usual and normal schedule for building BTT. Therefore, for greater confidence in determining day X, an ovulation test that is sold at any pharmacy can help.

Signs and symptoms of ovulation, feelings of a woman (part 1)

For the early onset of pregnancy, it is important to know and be able to determine the days when ovulation occurs, since the conception of a child occurs on such days. This article will describe how to determine the onset of ovulation.

Ovulation is the process of leaving a Mature and fertilized egg from the ovary. The menstrual cycle of a woman is so arranged that in its first phase there is maturation of follicles and eggs in them (normally it is one or two eggs), which at the time of ovulation come out and are ready for fertilization. With the help of the fallopian tube, they enter the uterine cavity, where they merge with the spermatozoa. If this does not happen, then the egg dies, and the second phase of the cycle will help to remove it and prepare the uterine cavity and endometrium for the next attempt.

For the early onset of pregnancy, it is important to know and be able to determine the days when ovulation occurs, since the conception of a child occurs on such days.

ovulation calendar

The egg Matures during the menstrual cycle, which is necessary for the preparation of the uterus and the maturation of the egg, the result of which is ovulation. To determine ovulation using the calendar method, you need to know your menstrual cycle for the last few months. Knowing the cycle, you can calculate its length, i.e. the interval from the beginning of one month to the beginning of the next.

14 days are subtracted from the total duration of the cycle. So, if the cycle is 28 days, then taking away 14 days, we get 14 days of the cycle, in which the egg can exit the ovary. For conception within a week before ovulation and after it, the couple is recommended to have an active sexual life, preferably with breaks of 1-2 days, in order to have time to Mature the spermatozoa. As already calculated above, the release of a Mature egg occurs somewhere in the middle of the menstrual cycle.

Ovulation is the only day when you can get pregnant, without it, the onset of pregnancy is impossible. This is a very fast phase, which ends immediately after the release of a Mature egg from the follicle.

The ovulation cycle is usually divided into several periods: preovulation, ovulation itself, and postovulation. Nature created man so that he could have at least a day to conceive before or after ovulation. Why so? all because if the onset of pregnancy was possible only during ovulation, then there would be much more problems with infertility, and thanks to some life of the egg after ovulation, this period increases, which makes it possible for couples to fertilize and reproduce. In all women who are of reproductive age, there is a fertile period, which implies the time of pregnancy. This time falls on the ovulation itself and 3 days before and 2 days after it. This period is associated with the life of a sperm that lives in a woman’s body for up to five days.

Ovulation in women of childbearing age occurs periodically (every 21-35 days). The frequency of ovulation is regulated by neurohumoral mechanisms, mainly gonadotropins of the anterior pituitary and ovarian follicular hormone. Ovulation is facilitated by the accumulation of follicular fluid and thinning of ovarian tissue located above the protruding pole of the follicle. The constant ovulation rhythm for each woman undergoes changes within 3 months after abortion, within a year after delivery, and after 40 years, when the body is preparing for the pre-menopausal period. Ovulation stops with the onset of pregnancy and after the extinction of menstrual function. Setting the ovulation period is important when choosing the most effective time for fertilization, artificial insemination, and in vitro fertilization.

Signs of ovulation

To determine the day of ovulation, knowledge of its signs will help, for which it is necessary to treat your body with great attention. Of course, ovulation can not always be suspected, because its manifestations are very subjective and sometimes go unnoticed by a woman. But the changes in the hormonal background that occur every month allow you to “calculate” and remember the sensations during ovulation and compare them with the new ones.

Signs of ovulation

Subjective signs

The subjective signs of ovulation are those that a woman feels and only she can tell about. Another name for subjective signs is sensations:

Abdominal pains

One of the first signs of ovulation is considered to be pain in the lower abdomen. On the eve of the rupture of the follicle, a woman may feel, but not necessarily, a slight tingling in the lower abdomen, often on the right or left. This indicates a maximally enlarged and strained dominant follicle that is about to burst. After its rupture, a small wound of several millimeters remains on the ovary shell, which also bothers the woman. This is manifested by minor aching or pulling pains or discomfort in the lower abdomen. Such sensations disappear after a couple of days, but if the pain has not passed or is so acute that it violates the usual lifestyle, you should consult a doctor (ovarian apoplexy is possible).

Mammary glands

There may be soreness or hypersensitivity in the mammary glands, which is associated with hormonal restructuring. FSH production stops and LH synthesis begins, which is reflected in the breast. It is swollen and rough and becomes very sensitive to touch.

Libido

Another characteristic subjective sign of approaching and coming ovulation is an increase in libido (sexual desire), which is also due to hormonal changes. It is so predetermined by nature that it ensures the continuation of the genus – once the egg is ready for fertilization, it means that you need to strengthen your sexual desire to increase the probability of sexual contact and subsequent pregnancy.

Aggravation of sensations

On the eve and during ovulation, a woman notes an aggravation of all sensations (increased sensitivity to odors, changes in color perception and taste), which is also explained by hormonal changes. Emotional lability and sudden mood changes (from irritability to fun, from tears to laughter) are not excluded.

Objective sign

Cervix uteri

During the gynecological examination in the ovulatory phase, the doctor may note that the cervix has softened somewhat, the cervical canal has opened slightly, and the neck itself has lifted up.

Oedemata

Swelling of the limbs, most often the legs, indicates a change in the production of FSH to the production of LH and is visible not only to the woman herself, but also to her relatives and the doctor.

Excreta

When ovulation changes its character and vaginal discharge. If in the first phase of the cycle a woman does not notice spots on her underwear, which is associated with a thick plug that clogs the cervical canal and prevents infectious agents from entering the uterine cavity, then in the ovulatory stage, the discharge changes. The mucus in the cervical canal is liquefied and becomes viscous and viscous, which is necessary to facilitate the penetration of spermatozoa into the uterine cavity. In appearance, the neck mucus resembles egg white, stretches up to 7-10 cm and leaves noticeable spots on the underwear.

Basal temperature

This symptom can only be detected by a woman who regularly keeps a schedule of basal temperature. On the eve of ovulation, there is a slight (0.1-0.2 degrees) decrease in temperature, and during the rupture of the follicle and after the temperature rises and remains above 37 degrees.

What does ovulation feel like?

What does a woman feel during ovulation? Every woman who carefully monitors her female health can clearly tell the time when ovulation is approaching and when it occurs. Among the signs that indicate the approach of ovulation, highlight the nature of the discharge – they become thick, abundant and transparent. Additional symptoms include:

  • discomfort in the lower abdomen
  • breast swelling, mild soreness
  • an increase in basal temperature, if its schedule is determined by a woman
  • sexual desire reaches its maximum

Fortunately, the severity of clinical symptoms of ovulation in most women is so minimal that they do not attach importance to them. Others also note during this period of pain in the lower abdomen on one side, which indicates which ovary ovulated, heaviness in the lower back, which independently disappear after a short period of time. And only a small percentage of women note a pronounced pain symptom that forces them to seek medical help.

We have discussed how to determine ovulation by feeling a little, but it is important to remember that not all women observe such symptoms and this does not allow us to talk about the lack of ovulation in them, because their pain threshold is so high that they level these feelings. You can reliably confirm the presence of ovulation only by measuring basal temperature, conducting ovulation tests, or using ultrasound, which determines the observation of the growth of follicles and the exit from the dominant egg, as well as a sharp change in vaginal secretions allows you to judge the onset or approach of ovulation.

The duration of ovulation

Every woman who plans to give birth to a child should know how many days ovulation lasts in women and by what methods it can be calculated. Ovulation itself involves the release of an egg, ready for fertilization, from the dominant follicle, which breaks under the influence of hormones and in its place a yellow body is formed.

How many days is ovulation in women and how to determine it? All women are interested in this issue at the stage of pregnancy planning, especially if the process of fertilization does not occur for a long time. Everyone knows that pregnancy requires ovulation, and the time of its onset falls in the middle of the menstrual cycle. But, unfortunately, not every woman has a regular menstrual cycle, which allows you to determine its time of onset. Almost every woman who is of reproductive age can become pregnant in the middle of the menstrual cycle for several days. To calculate the time of ovulation you need to use several methods:

  • the standard method is that after two weeks from the first day of menstruation, the probability of ovulation increases, but this is not for everyone. This method works if the menstrual cycle lasts 28 days. If the cycle is longer, then the onset of ovulation occurs later.
  • measurement of basal temperature from the first day of the cycle in compliance with all the requirements, because during ovulation in the body there is a hormonal adjustment, which is characterized by an increase in temperature on the graph and indirectly indicates ovulation. This method can be judged after several months of observation. The onset of the upcoming ovulation can be judged by a sharp decrease in temperature due to hormonal imbalance and its subsequent increase above 37 degrees
  • ovulatory tests make it possible to study ovulation for several days, which is very important when planning a pregnancy

Ovulation lasts on average from 16 to 32 hours, but this is the time of the fertile window, that is, the time when it is possible to fertilize the egg and the onset of pregnancy. The release of a Mature egg itself lasts from a few minutes to a dozen minutes, which was noticed during IVF.

To determine how long ovulation lasts in women, you can use its characteristic signs: increased libido, swelling and swelling of the mammary glands, discomfort in the lower abdomen and lower back, more on the one hand, abundant mucous discharge, sometimes with streaks of blood.

How long ovulation takes depends on the lifetime of the germ cells. A Mature egg that has emerged from the follicle can be fertilized within one or two days, which is always individual. Therefore, if a woman has symptoms of ovulation on one day, then the next two days may also be the onset of ovulation, as well as sexual intercourse three days before it often leads to the onset of pregnancy, because the sperm lives about three days.

How many days is ovulation — each woman can determine by clinical symptoms, and if the vaginal discharge disappears or becomes too thick, pain and swelling of the mammary glands disappear, then we can say that it has passed, and the probability of pregnancy is not.

The period of ovulation in women can fluctuate with inflammatory processes in the reproductive system, with eating disorders, significant physical and mental loads, with severe stress and nervous shocks, with a sharp change in climatic conditions of residence, as well as with active sexual life.

Do not forget that the body can have both early ovulation and late ovulation. Early ovulation is characterized by its early onset and is associated with frequent sexual acts, significant physical activity, strict diets, as well as the presence of diseases that can affect the hormonal background of a woman. Sometimes ovulation comes late, which can also be determined using the tests and techniques that we discussed a little earlier. Due to the presence of ovulation and the regularity of the menstrual cycle, it is possible to indirectly judge a woman’s reproductive age, her probability of pregnancy and gestation. Many women, knowing when they are ovulating, plan a pregnancy or carefully protect themselves from it. The absence of ovulation for 2 or 3 cycles indicates a violation of reproductive health and requires medical attention to correct the hormonal background.

To be continued

Clomid: instructions for use of tablets

Clomid is a non-steroidal medicinal product belonging to the group of antiestrogens. It has a dose-dependent effect on the pituitary gland, which is responsible for the production of sex hormones. The drug is used not only in reproductive medicine, but also in sports and bodybuilding to restore the body’s ability to produce its own hormones.

Clomid: Indications for use

Clomid was developed for:

  • Stimulation of ovulation in women suffering from anovulatory cycle
  • Elimination of amenorrhea caused by insufficient gonadotropin production
  • Treatment of androgen deficiency in men and oligospermia
  • Diagnostics of the causes of violation of the gonadotropic function of the brain (pituitary).

In addition, Clomid is actively used in bodybuilding and sports to normalize the body’s work on the production of endogenous hormones after a course of steroids. This application is not provided by the manufacturers of the drug, but is the result of personal experience of men engaged in body building. Therefore, few doctors will be able to advise and prescribe a remedy for this purpose.

Medical property

The active component of Clomid is clomiphene citrate, which belongs to the group of antiestrogenic agents. Use in small doses leads to increased production of gonadotropins: prolactin and hormones with follicle-stimulating and luteinizing effects, which contributes to ovulation.

Use of clomid in bodybuilding

If the body’s estrogen content is low, Clomid has a moderate estrogenic effect, and in the case of a high content – antiestrogenic. Taking large doses activates the production of gonadotropins.

Method of application

The dosage of clomid tablets depends on the purpose of the drug. Clomid regimen for infertility problems:

  • To stimulate ovulation, the instructions for use recommend that women take 50 mg daily (before bedtime). Therapy begins on the 5th day of the monthly cycle. The course is 5 days. If there is no effect, repeat the drug administration (up to 3-6 courses), increasing the dosage to 150 mg or extending the duration of therapy, bringing the course to 10 days. At the same time, it is important not to exceed the total dose for the entire cycle of administration-1 g of the active substance.
  • Infertility in men. Representatives of the stronger sex, experiencing problems with spermatogenesis, it is recommended to take 1-2 times a day for 50 mg. During the course for men, it is mandatory to check the spermogram.

How to take Clomid on PCT

The scheme of recovery with Clomid after a course of steroids depends on its duration and the number of stimulants taken. The higher the dosage of steroids and the longer the cycle lasted, the longer it will take to return the body’s functions to normal.

  • After the ultralight course: 15 days of 50 mg, then the next 15 days of 25 mg
  • After a light course: 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg, 15 times (1 time in 2 days) 25 mg
  • After moderate intake: 30 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg
  • After intensive administration: 15 days. X 100 mg, 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg
  • After overdose: 3 days. X 150 mg, 12 days. X 100 mg, 15 days. X 50 mg, 15 days. X 25 mg.

To restore the production of their own testosterone, other drugs are also used-antiestrogens. What works best depends on many factors. Basically, several pairs of drugs are compared:

  • Clomid or Tamoxifen? The competing drugs are similar in structure, but the latter drug is stronger. Therefore, it takes less to restore testosterone. However, it is considered that the described remedy is the best choice for PCT after taking progestins.
  • Proviron or Clomid? Both medications have an anti-estrogenic effect, but each of them in its own way. The difference is as follows: Clomid stimulates tissues to release hormones, which increases the level of endogenous testosterone, and Proviron suppresses the enzymes responsible for the transformation of steroid hormones into estrogens. Due to this, the process slows down, which leads to the accumulation of testosterone in the plasma. But the effect is temporary, so after some time, the level of the male hormone will fall again.

Should I drink Clomid on a course of steroids

While taking anabolics, the level of androgens is extremely high, and therefore the body does not need to synthesize its own substances. The hypothalamus stops giving commands to the pituitary gland to produce hormones. As long as the concentration in the body of substances received from outside is maximum, Clomid will not be able to stimulate the body. The drug can only be taken during a steroid cycle as an anti-estrogenic agent.

The drug is prohibited for pregnant and nursing mothers. Women of reproductive age should make sure that there is no pregnancy if Clomid is prescribed.

Clomid precautionary measures

The use of the drug should only take place under the constant supervision of specialists.

The drug stimulates superovulation, which creates favorable conditions for the development of multiple pregnancies.

If ovulation is assumed to have taken place after the reception, but menstruation has not occurred, you should check the woman for pregnancy. Repeated administration of tablets can be carried out only after confirmation of the absence of conception.

Pills can cause decreased mindfulness, drowsiness, and slow reactions. At the time of admission, you should refrain from potentially dangerous activities: driving vehicles or operating complex mechanisms.

Like any medicine, Clomid should not be taken with alcohol, so as not to reduce its effect.

What drugs stimulate ovulation

Increasingly, women are turning to a gynecologist with problems with conception. But medicine does not stand still, it is constantly developing, so the desired pregnancy can occur after treatment with special drugs that stimulate ovulation.

Reasons for lack of ovulation

Most often, the inability to get pregnant is associated with the lack of ovulation as such or with its incorrect course. There may be several reasons for this:

  • Diseases of the pelvic organs of an infectious and inflammatory nature (chronic salpingoophoritis, polycystic ovaries, cysts, etc.).
  • Too small a woman’s weight is usually less than 48 kg, in which there is insufficient production of sex hormones, which leads to a lack of ovulation and amenorrhea.
  • Hormonal changes in the body against the background of stress, excessive weight (when the body mass index is more than 25), certain diseases of the thyroid gland (Hypo – or hyperthyroidism), etc.
  • Long-term use of oral contraceptives. In this case, the body stops producing hormones on its own, and it sometimes takes several months to fully restore this ability.
  • Excessive physical activity can also negatively affect ovulation, especially if it is associated with taking synthetic sports nutrition supplements. These drugs have a very negative effect on the female reproductive system.

In what cases do I need stimulation and when it is not carried out

Ovulation stimulation is possible when a couple cannot conceive a child for a year. If the age of a woman is 35+, this period can be reduced to six months. In any case, a thorough diagnosis (preferably of both partners) is necessary to identify the true causes of infertility and make a decision about stimulation. In particular, the following diagnostic tests are carried out:

Ovulation stimulation

  • Collection of the patient’s medical history, which takes into account her age, the presence/absence of abortions and pregnancies, miscarriages, chronic diseases, carrying an intrauterine device, etc.
  • The patency of the fallopian tubes is checked. Non-operative and operative methods are used for this purpose. The first include metrosalpingography (x-ray examination). A variation is ultrasonic metrosalpingography, when using a contrast agent and ultrasound equipment to check the patency of pipes. These methods are not universal and have their disadvantages, such as the harmfulness of radiation and possible errors in the result. For more accurate diagnostics, laparoscopy is used-an operative study, but it gives the most reliable results.
  • The usual ultrasound examination, which can show possible inflammatory processes, polycystic, various neoplasms and other pathologies of the female reproductive system.
  • In some cases, ovulatory failures may occur due to hormonal disorders, so it is mandatory to donate blood to determine the amount of female sex hormones. At the same time, it is recommended to conduct research on the activity of the thyroid gland, since this organ has a direct impact on female fertility.
  • The partner’s spermogram should also be performed, since sometimes the reason for the absence of pregnancy can be insufficient mobility and viability of spermatozoa.
  • Test the compatibility of the partners. If the results are unfavorable, the doctor may suggest artificial insemination.

It should be noted that contraindications to stimulation are inflammatory diseases of the uterus and (or) ovaries, tubes, adjacent organs and systems (urinary tract, gastrointestinal tract), hormonal fluctuations, the onset of menopause or pre-climatic period.

After diagnostic measures and in the absence of absolute contraindications, the gynecologist decides to prescribe drugs that stimulate ovulation.

Methods of ovulation stimulation

Ovulation stimulation is impossible without taking vitamin complexes and useful trace elements. True female” vitamins include E, A, B (folic acid is required), and C. additionally, vitamin D is recommended, especially for women living in areas where Sunny days are rare.

Methods of ovulation stimulation

Vitamin A helps follicle maturation and regulates the amount of cervical fluid. B vitamins are recommended to be taken both at the planning stage of pregnancy and during it, as they not only prolong the luteal phase of the cycle, promote endometrial growth and egg maturation, but also during pregnancy eliminate toxicosis, prevent miscarriages and help healthy fetal development. Vitamin E stimulates the maturation of the yellow body, “supports” ovulation itself and increases the production of progesterone, which is especially useful when this hormone is insufficient. Vitamin C helps normalize the hormonal background, and also serves as a means to prevent the development of DNA abnormalities in the future fetus. Also, when preparing for pregnancy, it is advisable to monitor the sufficient intake of polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in the body. They are most concentrated in oily fish, synthetic fish oil, and Flaxseed and olive oils. Drugs containing selenium, zinc, and iron are also used to stimulate ovulation.

All these methods of restoring ovulatory function are effective. However, you can’t use them at random. A doctor’s consultation is necessary, as well as an extensive and comprehensive diagnosis of both partners.

Ovulation stimulation: from indications to prescription.

Long ago in the past, there were times when problems with ovulation in a woman meant only one thing for a married couple — infertility. Medicine has learned to successfully solve this problem, and in many cases, treatment ends with conception and the birth of a healthy child. In this case, ovulation stimulation is performed with drugs that are individually selected for each patient in accordance with her physiological characteristics. We will tell you in which cases the doctor can prescribe ovulation stimulation, what should precede it, what is the scheme of the procedure and its effectiveness.

Why do we need the stimulation of ovulation

Ovulation stimulation is prescribed only if there are direct indications for it, since if the woman’s reproductive system is in order, then she herself produces viable eggs.

Ovulation in a healthy woman of childbearing age is the process of releasing a fully Mature and ready-to-fertilize egg from the follicle. Exit is preceded by a long preparation. Once a month, several eggs sleeping in the ovary are awakened by hormones and begin to increase in size. After about ten days, the dominant follicle is released from them, the size of which can reach 18-20 mm. When the egg is fully Mature, the follicle shell is torn. The egg goes into the abdominal cavity, and then enters the fallopian tube. There, within 24 hours, she waits for fertilization. If it does not happen for some reason, the egg dies and the whole process is repeated in a month. Usually one egg is involved in ovulation, but sometimes there are two or three. In this case, twins are born. If the embryo divides itself into 2 parts after fertilization (that is, initially these 2 parts were formed from one egg and one sperm), then twins are born.

ovulation stimulation

In some women who are ready to become mothers both physically and mentally, pregnancy does not occur because her ovaries do not form a Mature egg. If conception does not occur for 6 consecutive cycles, ovulation stimulation may be prescribed. It has a single goal — to help the body form a full-fledged egg, capable of fertilization, and push it to exit the follicle. The essence of the method is to target the ovaries with certain medications in order to increase the release of hormones necessary for ovulation.

Ovulation stimulation for conception, the doctor prescribes only if there are:

  • Anovulatory infertility (hormonal dysfunction that is incurable in another way; polycystic ovary; a woman’s high or low body mass index;)
  • Preparation for artificial insemination by IVF.
  • Infertility of unknown origin.

Preliminary study

Before starting the ovulation stimulation procedure, the doctor necessarily prescribes a number of studies, both laboratory and instrumental. Their purpose is to identify possible contraindications:

  • hormonal disorders;
  • inflammatory processes of the pelvic organs and ovaries;
  • violations of the patency of the fallopian tubes.

A relative contraindication is the age of a woman over 40 years, because in this case, the risk of giving birth to a sick child increases.

So, instrumental research includes:

  • Examination of the therapist to identify common diseases in which pregnancy is contraindicated.
  • ECG.
  • Ultrasound of the pelvis and mammary glands.
  • Examination of the patency of the fallopian tubes by laparoscopy or radiography with contrast material.
  • Folliculometry.
  • Fluorography.
  • Types of laboratory tests:

Clinical blood test.

  • Blood tests for syphilis, HIV, hepatitis B and C.
  • The General analysis of urine.
  • PCR – examination of smears from the vagina and cervical canal.
  • Examination of smears from the vagina, cervical canal and urethra for atypical cells and the degree of purity.
  • Infectious examination (for chlamydia, ureaplasmosis and mycoplasmosis, gonorrhea, trichomoniasis, etc.).
  • Determination of the blood level of female sex hormones, thyroid hormones, prolactin and testosterone (performed repeatedly).

After a full examination and obtaining a medical opinion on the absence of diseases that can prevent conception or provoke the birth of a sick child, it is necessary to assess the ovarian reserve of a woman. Using this procedure, is defined by:

  • the chance to receive in the process of stimulating ovulation of a positive result;
  • intensity of stimulation;
  • optimal scheme;
  • the most effective drugs and their individual dose.

To assess the ovarian reserve, a woman gives blood for analysis after taking hormonal drugs. Based on the obtained indicators, a conclusion is made about the prospect of artificial ovulation stimulation.

The choice of the scheme of hyperovulation

Ovulation stimulation is performed according to one of the regulated schemes, which describes in detail the method, dose and duration of administration of the drug. The doctor selects the scheme taking into account:

  • result of ovarian reserve assessment;
  • female body mass;
  • the results of the previous stimulation procedures (if any).

All drugs used for stimulation are hormonal, but differ from each other in the type of hormone they are based on — follicle-stimulating or luteinizing (necessary to support the development of the egg). There are four groups of tools for ovulation stimulation.

  • Preparations based on HMG (human menopausal gonadotropin), containing follicle-stimulating (FSH) and luteinizing (LH) hormones in the same proportion. This includes, for example, “Menopur”.
  • Drugs based on FSH, whose principle of action is close to the natural hormone — “Gonal”, “Puregon”.
  • Drugs that are based on the suppression of estrogen and increase the level of FSH to the required norm — “Clostylbegit”, “Clomid“, “Clomifen”.
  • Hormonal agents that stimulate the rupture of the follicle shell and the timely release of the egg – “Prophase”, “Horagon”, “Pregnil”, “Ovitrel”.

Usually, a combination of drugs is used in the schemes.

Ovulation stimulation is recommended to be performed no more than 6 times, since it can lead to depletion of the ovaries. If the desired pregnancy does not occur as a result of stimulation, it is necessary to choose other methods of treatment.

Despite the fact that ovulation stimulation is a well-established method of treating infertility, it should be remembered that it also has its own limits of application, indications and contraindications, and side effects. In addition, even if it did not lead to the long-awaited result, it is important to know: modern Reproductology is not limited to this method.

Clomid is one of the best antiestrogens in bodybuilding

Application of Clomid in bodybuilding

Both Amateurs and professional athletes often use Clomid. Similarly, athletes often use a variety of other chemicals, such as anabolic steroids, HCG, tamoxifen, thyroid hormones, etc. Unlike other anabolic steroids or hormones, Clomid does not reduce testosterone levels. On the contrary, causing a surge of LH, the drug increases the level of testosterone.

Almost all anabolic steroids have both androgenic and anabolic properties. In some cases, anabolic steroids contribute to the formation of estrogens. With the help of an enzyme, aromatases are also converted into the female sex hormone, estrogen. Estrogen contributes to the development of gynecomastia in bodybuilders.

Although bodybuilders like to show off their bodies, it is unlikely that any of them will want to flaunt their effeminate Breasts. Therefore, Clomid is used to block the development of gynecomastia. By blocking estrogen receptors, it prevents the development of gynecomastia caused by anabolic steroids.

When Clomid blocks estrogen receptors in the brain, the hypothalamus causes a surge of LH and FSH – releasing hormones, which leads to an increase in sex hormone synthesis. LH and FSH also affect the testicles, causing further testosterone synthesis. Testosterone gives the athlete an extra boost. Some bodybuilders take Clomid only to get an anabolic effect. Others use it in combination with other steroids and growth hormone.

Clomid dosage for bodybuilders

Clomid is taken only once a day. Experts in the field of bodybuilding advise taking it alone or in combination with low-activity anabolic steroids. Most bodybuilders take anabolic steroids for a few months and then switch to Clomid. The tool provides a surge of testosterone.

The exact time when you should start taking the drug is unknown. But there is a recommendation to start taking Clomid on the 7-10 day after the end of taking steroid medications.

How do experienced athletes take Clomid

Many athletes and bodybuilders take Clomid, but use different doses. There are no medical recommendations for taking this drug for those who are engaged in bodybuilding. But the dosage was established experimentally. Most bodybuilders take Clomiphene for two weeks at 50-100 mg per day. Some bodybuilders recommend increasing the dose to 100 mg per day.

Do not take Clomid for more than three weeks. This cycle was established by bodybuilders of the past. Since doctors do not recommend taking Clomid for bodybuilders, it is very difficult to get medical advice on taking this drug. In any case, if there are doubts about taking clomid, you can consult with specialists in the treatment of infertility: after all, they know the effect of This drug better than anyone.

It is not known exactly how long you can take Clomid. There is no data on long-term treatment with this drug. There is only a General recommendation not to take Clomid for long courses.

Clomid: Side effect

If you take Clomid for a short period of time and adhere to the specified doses, it is quite safe. Most adverse reactions caused by Clomid are temporary and disappear after discontinuation of its use.

The main side effects include:

  • flushes of blood to the face
  • abdominal discomfort
  • nausea, vomiting
  • chest pain
  • headaches
  • abnormal vaginal bleeding
  • General fatigue
  • hair loss

Visual impairment

Since Clomid affects the brain, there is a danger of its serious side effects. By blocking estrogen-dependent receptors in the hypothalamus, Clomid thereby causes the hypothalamus to release stimulating factors or hormones that force the pituitary gland to release gonadotropins. The pituitary gland is a small pea-sized gland located on top of the optic nerves. With hyperstimulation of the pituitary gland, it increases in size.

pituitary gland and clomid

This leads to compression of the nerves of the eye. Many reports mention poor vision in those patients who have taken Clomid for a long time. There are various visual disturbances:

  • circles before the eyes
  • partial vision loss
  • image blurring or blurring
  • flashes

This usually occurs after a long period of use, although some patients have experienced such symptoms after 7 to 10 days of using the drug. Very often, such phenomena occurred suddenly, which is very dangerous for those who are driving a car or operating mechanisms. In most cases, these changes in vision disappeared after discontinuation of the drug. In case of such violations, you should immediately stop taking the medication and it is strongly recommended to contact an ophthalmologist.

Mood change

Another serious side effect is a change in mood. Many reports indicate that women who have taken Clomid for a long time develop a variety of behavioral problems. This can be a deep depression, irritability, anxiety or aggression. There were also cases of paranoia, anxiety, and insomnia.

Despite such unpleasant complications in some people, studies conducted in many clinics claim that this occurs in only 1% of women who have taken Clomid. There is no data on how many bodybuilders experience these side effects.

Determination of the drug level in the blood

Clomiphene can be easily purchased by anyone. However, all sports organizations prohibit its use in professional sports. The drug is easily detected in the urine for at least 5 to 12 days after its use. Tests for Clomiphene are very well developed, and some laboratories even measure the levels of testosterone and estrogens, their metabolites,and determine the percentage. With certain indicators, the use of Clomiphene is suspected.

Clomid for the treatment of female infertility

Clomid is a medication that is used in gynecological practice for the treatment of female infertility. It belongs to the group of antiestrogens. This means that it blocks the receptors (nerve endings) in the ovaries and hypothalamus, which leads to a decrease in the production of estrogens. Also, this drug stimulates the maturation of follicles, ovulation itself and the level of estradiol in the blood.

What are estrogens?

This is a group of steroid female sex hormones that are produced mainly in the ovaries. Men also have a small amount of estrogen in their blood, which is produced by the testicles and adrenal glands (in both sexes). Estrogens are divided into three types: estrone, estriol, and estradiol. Clomid particularly affects estradiol levels in the blood.

Functions of estrogens:

Feminization. This means that thanks to estrogens, a woman has a feminine appearance. In adolescence, these hormones are actively produced and form secondary sexual characteristics (Breasts, buttocks, abdomen, female hair growth, growth of internal and external genitals).

Reproduction. A group of estrogen hormones activates the production of mucus in the vagina, as well as its epithelization, which creates the necessary conditions for maintaining the viability of spermatozoa. Estrogens stimulate the maturation of the egg (follicle) and the onset of ovulation, in which the Mature egg is released from the ovary and it can be fertilized by a sperm. Further, after ovulation, in the event that fertilization occurred, estrogens are responsible for the preservation of the fetal egg, blood supply to the placenta and preparation of the expectant mother’s breast for lactation. If the egg is not fertilized by a sperm, these hormones activate the detachment of the inner layer of the uterus (endometrium) and, as a result, menstruation begins.

Other effects of estrogens include the regulation of calcium levels, cholesterol in the blood, blood pressure, liver function, and mental activity.

How Clomid works

Clomid contains the main active substance – clomiphene, which blocks the receptors that perceive estrogens in the hypothalamus (the part of the brain that controls the hormonal background of the body). As a result, the production of gonadotropins (follicle-stimulating and luteinizing) increases, which activate maturation and intra-secretory (endocrine) function of the follicle in the ovaries. As a result of all the processes described above, the use of the drug Clomid leads to the fact that the level of estradiol in the blood increases significantly.

Causes and symptoms of estrogen reduction

  • The main reason that the level of estrogens in the blood of a woman decreases is the lack of activity of the ovaries that produce them. As the body ages, there is also a shortage of them. An important reason may be various pathological changes on the part of the pituitary gland.
  • Sometimes there is a decrease in the level of estrogens in women who are engaged in professional sports, when the physical load on the body is excessive. This phenomenon occurs due to the fact that testosterone (the male hormone) is produced intensively.
  • Another important point is the presence or absence of adipose tissue. It is proved that estrogens are also produced by fat cells. This means that exhaustion or rapid weight loss is extremely dangerous for the female body, namely for its reproductive ability.

Symptoms that occur with estrogen deficiency

  • In adolescence, a lack of estrogens leads to insufficient development of secondary sexual characteristics, a decrease in the size of the uterus, late onset and failures in the menstrual cycle.
  • In the reproductive age, a decrease in the level of estrogens provokes a decrease in sexual desire, sharp mood swings, various violations of the duration and other indicators of the menstrual cycle. In parallel, memory decreases, performance, insomnia appears and the skin condition worsens (its elasticity, color, turgor). Stretch marks, pigmentation, and inflammatory rashes appear on the skin. Female infertility and dysfunctional uterine bleeding may occur.

Form of release of the drug Clomid

This medicine is produced in tablet form. Each tablet contains 25mg, 50mg, 100 milligrams of clomiphene. The drug Clomid is intended for oral administration, that is, through the mouth.

clomid for the treatment of female infertility

Indications for use of the drug Clomid

According to the instructions for use of the drug, it is prescribed for these conditions:

  • infertility caused by lack of ovulation;
  • galactorrhea is a spontaneous pathological outflow of milk from the breast, which is not associated with feeding a child and occurs as a result of pituitary tumors;
  • amenorrhea – absence of menstruation for a long period;
  • dysfunctional uterine bleeding (metrorrhagia);
  • androgen insufficiency (hypogonadism) – insufficient production of steroid hormones by the sexual glands;
  • polycystic ovary;
  • oligospermia in men, a condition in which the quality and activity of spermatozoa decreases;
  • violation of the pituitary gland.

How to take Clomid

The scheme of application of the drug is different and depends on the pathology. As indicated in the instructions for use of the drug, to stimulate the ovulation process, Clomid is prescribed at a dose of 50 milligrams once a day, before bedtime. The course of taking the drug begins on the fifth day of the menstrual cycle and lasts five days. In situations where there is no menstruation at all, you can start taking the drug at any time prescribed by the doctor. If it is ineffective and there is no ovulation, the dose of Clomid can be increased to 150 milligrams per day, or the course of treatment can be extended to ten days. There is a special indication in the instructions, which says that the total course dose of the drug should not exceed 1 gram.

How to determine whether Clomid is effective

It is necessary to determine the presence of ovulation. To do this, there are several fairly simple methods that a woman can perform herself at home. This is a temperature method or basal temperature measurement, a method of ovulation tests. Additionally, the levels of hormones (luteinizing, progesterone, etc.) are determined.

In cases where the menstrual cycle has improved, but pregnancy does not occur, it is recommended to repeat the course of taking this drug in the same therapeutic dosage.

Contraindications to taking the drug Clomid

  • Renal or hepatic insufficiency, which is associated with the way the drug is excreted.
  • Neoplasm of the genitals.
  • Uterine bleeding of unknown etiology.
  • Inflammation of the inner layer of the uterus (endometriosis).
  • A tumor or an underactive pituitary gland.
  • Ovarian insufficiency on the background of increased prolactin levels in the blood.
  • Ovarian cyst.
  • Pregnancy.

Side effects of the drug Clomid

During the reception of Clomid, various manifestations from the internal organs may appear.

  • Allergic manifestations: vasomotor disorders, allergic dermatitis, rarely-rashes.
  • Manifestations from the nervous system: drowsiness, dizziness, headache, depression, insomnia, hyperexcitability, slowing down the speed of motor and mental reactions.
  • Possible manifestations of the genitourinary system: an increase in the size of the ovary, cystic ovarian changes, menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, polyuria, increased urination, pain in the lower abdomen.
  • Other possible side reactions include:” flushes ” of blood to the face, alopecia (hair loss), chest pain (breast), decreased visual acuity, weight gain.

Special instructions concerning the drug Clomid

Taking this medication increases the likelihood of multiple pregnancies.

The development of effective action of the drug is possible only if the patient has a sufficient amount of their own estrogens. The lower their level, the less effective Clomid is.

Treatment with anti-estrogenic drugs, as well as any other, should take place under the careful supervision of a gynecologist. Periodically, the ovarian function is determined and other special examinations, including vaginal ones, are performed.

During the course of therapeutic treatment with Clomid, it is recommended to take special care when working with mechanisms that carry a potential danger, and when driving a car.