Ovulation – what is it in simple words

Ovulation is a cyclical physiological process in which a Mature egg is released from the ovary. During this period, the highest probability of fertilization of the egg, so determining the fact of ovulation is very important for women who want to get pregnant.

What happens when you ovulate

During ovulation, the physiological process of leaving a Mature egg from the ovary with its subsequent entry into the fallopian tube, where fertilization can occur. The process is cyclical in nature, the release of the egg occurs every month on about 14 days from the beginning of the menstrual cycle (a possible slight deviation in the timing of ovulation is considered normal).

Directly the exit of the egg from the ovary takes a period of time about an hour. Then it moves into the uterine tube (movement occurs due to the movement of the villi of the fallopian tube mucosa). In the fallopian tube funnel, an egg can be fertilized by a sperm within 24 hours. If this does not happen, then it dies.

The entire period of time when there is the highest probability of ovulation is called the ovulatory period. It is the most favorable for the conception of a child. The reliable duration of the ovulatory period remains unexplored, usually a favorable period for getting pregnant is 1 day before and after ovulation.

How ovulation is regulated

Ovulation is a complex physiological process that is regulated by certain hormones. The pituitary gland produces follicle-stimulating hormone, which increases the rate of egg maturation and follicle formation (the vesicle before ovulation can reach 2 cm in diameter).

During the maturation of the follicle, estrogens are released. They affect the hypothalamus, pituitary (structures of the Central nervous system), stimulating the production of luteinizing hormone, responsible for maturing the egg. The increase in the concentration of the hormone in the blood begins 36-48 hours before ovulation and has a peak character.

After the exit of the germ cell, a yellow body is formed in place of the damaged vesicle (the postovulatory phase of the menstrual cycle). Knowledge of the regulation of the ovulation process is necessary to find out the causes and mechanism of various changes in which female infertility can develop.

Why to determine ovulation

The fertilization process occurs only when a Mature egg is released and moved into the fallopian tube. After unprotected sexual intercourse, spermatozoa usually move to the fallopian tube within 24 hours (the lifetime of a Mature egg that has left the ovary) and fertilize the egg.


The ovulatory period is the most favorable for fertilization of an egg and conception of a child, so at the stage of pregnancy planning, a woman finds out the time of ovulation. If ovulation was detected when using the test system, it is recommended to carry out conception within a day after the test.

How to determine ovulation

The entire ovulatory period and the process of direct release of the egg from the ovary does not manifest itself clinically. The General condition and well-being of the woman does not change. Therefore, in order to reliably determine ovulation, you can use several common methods:

Calculation of ovulation.

The calculation of the possible day of ovulation during a regular menstrual cycle. The first day of the cycle is considered the beginning of menstruation. With a known and equal number of all days (on average, the cycle lasts about 28 days) of the menstrual cycle, its middle (day 14) will coincide with the beginning of ovulation. For the convenience of counting, you can use a special calendar of the menstrual cycle.

Determination of ovulation by body temperature.

Measurement of a woman’s body temperature, which is better performed in the rectum (it is possible to get more reliable measurement results). During ovulation, due to the peak production of luteinizing hormone, there is a small (on average, half a degree) rise in temperature. For convenience, it is recommended to measure throughout the entire menstrual cycle and make a schedule.

The ovulation test.

Using a special ovulation test is a modern technique that is based on determining the appearance of luteinizing hormone in a woman’s body fluids (urine, saliva). The diagnostic system can be represented by test strips. They are dipped in a vessel with collected urine, and then the result is recorded. The presence of 2 strips (experimental and control lines) indicates the presence of luteinizing hormone in the blood and determines ovulation.

Thanks to the availability of modern test systems for ovulation, its determination has become much easier.

What determines the time of ovulation

In the normal functional state of the endocrine and reproductive systems, ovulation occurs approximately on the same day of the menstrual cycle. Changes in the timing of the release of a Mature egg from their ovary are recorded in 20% of cases and may be the result of various provoking factors:

  • Endocrine pathology that affects the pituitary, adrenal, or sex glands.
  • Infections of the reproductive system, which also include sexually transmitted diseases (mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis, trichomoniasis, chlamydia).
  • Chronic pathological conditions of the internal genitals, which include polycystic ovaries, endometriosis.
  • Metabolic disorders (metabolism) with the development of obesity.
  • Suffered excessive physical, mental, emotional stress.
  • Genetic predisposition, inherited (syndrome of early ovarian depletion, which develops before the age of 40 years).
  • Age-related physiological decline in the functional activity of the reproductive system.

Diagnosis of the causes of ovulation disorders is necessary for effective treatment of various changes in the functional state of the reproductive system that lead to female infertility.

Why is there no ovulation?

So, now you know what ovulation is, in simple words, it is the release of an egg from the ovary, which can be fertilized by a sperm. Due to ovulation, pregnancy occurs. If this process is disrupted, the woman can not conceive a child. Try to buy clomid online and use it, in most cases it helps to conceive a child.

Some women do not ovulate. Why is this happening? Consider all possible reasons why eggs may not Mature in the ovaries. They can be physiological and pathological.

Physiological cause

  • early age, before puberty – girls may not ovulate even up to 15-16 years, although these processes usually begin after 13-14 years;
  • late age – over the years, ovulation occurs less and less, after 50 years, the egg in many women no longer Matures at all;
  • pregnancy – during the period of carrying a child, it is impossible to conceive another one;
  • lactation – during this process, the hormone prolactin is produced, which blocks the production of FSH (this hormone stimulates the maturation of follicles in the ovaries, so if it is not produced in the pituitary gland, ovulation does not occur).

Often there is no female ovulation, because there are some disorders in the body. In the vast majority of cases, the endocrine factor is to blame. That is, ovulation does not occur because certain hormones are too much or too little. As soon as their number becomes normal, ovulatory processes will again occur in the ovaries every month.

Pathological causes

  • damage to the ovaries as a result of trauma, surgery, radiation, tumors, etc.;
  • surgical removal of the ovaries;
  • their underdevelopment (congenital anomalies);
  • premature ovarian depletion syndrome (early menopause).

Note that if ovulation is absent, it does not mean that it will never happen. In women with endocrine disorders, it can occur, it just happens less often. It is more difficult to catch the moment for fertilizing sexual intercourse to conceive a child. In healthy women, eggs Mature 10-12 times a year. In endocrine diseases, this can occur only 2-3 times a year. The majority of cycles remain anovulatory. In addition, the duration of a single menstrual cycle can sometimes reach several months due to an increase in the duration of the follicular phase. That is, the period during which the ovary grows a follicle with an egg.

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